Efficient quantum private comparison protocol based on the entanglement swapping between four-qubit cluster state and extended Bell state

  • Chaoyang Li
  • Xiubo ChenEmail author
  • Hengji Li
  • Yuguang Yang
  • Jian Li


Quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol can guarantee the two participants to compare the equality of their private information without leaking them. Based on the entanglement swapping between the four-qubit cluster state and extended Bell state, an efficient QPC protocol has been proposed. Three bits of the secret inputs have been compared in each comparison time, which improves the efficiency compared with the previous QPC protocols’ one or two bits. Then, based on a random sequence pre-shared between the two participants, the semi-honest third party can only execute the protocol’s process without obtaining the information of the participants’ secrets and comparison results. Last, various kinds of attacks have been analyzed, which show that the proposed protocol is secure against the outside and participants attacks.


Quantum private comparison Entanglement swapping Cluster state Semi-honest third party 



Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1636106 and 61671087), Natural Science Foundation of Beijing Municipality under Grant 4182006, The Major Science and Technology Support Program of Guizhou Province under Grant 20183001, The Open Foundation of Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Public Big Data under Grant 2018BDKFJJ016 and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation (Grant No. CX2019227).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaoyang Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiubo Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hengji Li
    • 2
  • Yuguang Yang
    • 3
  • Jian Li
    • 2
  1. 1.Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching TechnologyBeijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceBeijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingChina
  3. 3.Faculty of Information TechnologyBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina

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