Universal quantum encryption for quantum signature using the swap test

  • Min-Sung Kang
  • Ho-Won Choi
  • Tanumoy Pramanik
  • Sang-Wook HanEmail author
  • Sung Moon


We suggest a universal quantum encryption scheme suitable for use in quantum signature. The verifier in a variety of quantum signature protocols usually checks for the falsification of the quantum signature state pair by using a swap test. However, these quantum signature protocols are not secure against existential forgery attacks; We prove that the universal quantum encryption scheme proposed in this paper is secure against this type of forgery because it uses the non-(anti)commutativity of an arbitrary unitary operator. In addition, we demonstrate its use in a quantum signature. Moreover, the optimization of this encryption in comparison with other encryption schemes is presented.


Quantum cryptography Quantum signature Existential forgery Swap test Universal quantum encryption scheme 



This work was supported by the ICT R&D programs of MSIP/IITP (Grant No. B0101-16-1355), the KIST research program (Grant No. 2E27801). M.S. Kang is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1A6A3A01001894).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min-Sung Kang
    • 1
  • Ho-Won Choi
    • 2
  • Tanumoy Pramanik
    • 1
  • Sang-Wook Han
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sung Moon
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Quantum InformationKorea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)SeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Natural ScienceKorea UniversitySejongRepublic of Korea

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