Quantum Information Processing

, 17:243 | Cite as

On four-photon entanglement from parametric down-conversion process

  • Dong Ding
  • Ying-Qiu He
  • Feng-Li Yan
  • Ting Gao


We propose a scheme to generate a family of four-photon polarization-entangled states from the second-order emission of the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (PDC) process. Based on linear optical elements and the coincidence detection, the four indistinguishable photons emitted from PDC source result in the family of states which are so different from the previous. By tuning the orientation of wave plate, we are able to obtain the well-known four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state, superposition of two (three) orthogonal GHZ states and generic superposition of four orthogonal GHZ states. As an application, we analyze quantum nonlocality for the present superposition states. Under particular phase settings, we calculate the local hidden variable (LHV) correlation and the quantum correlation function. As a result, the Bell inequality derived from the LHV correlation is completely violated by these four-photon entangled states. The maximal quantum violation occurs naturally with the four-photon GHZ state, and there exist the quantum violations which are larger than previously reported values over a surprisingly wide range. It means that the present four-photon entangled states are therefore suitable for testing the LHV theory.


Multiphoton entanglement Parametric down-conversion process Quantum nonlocality 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos: 11475054, 11371005, 11547169, 61472137, Hebei Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos: A2016205145, A2018205125, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China under Grant Nos: 3142017069, 3142015044, the Foundation for High-Level Talents of Chengde Medical University under Grant No: 201701, the Research Project of Science and Technology in Higher Education of Hebei Province of China under Grant Nos: Z2015188, QN2014330.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of ScienceNorth China Institute of Science and TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringChengde Medical UniversityChengdeChina
  3. 3.College of Physics Science and Information EngineeringHebei Normal UniversityShijiazhuangChina
  4. 4.College of Mathematics and Information ScienceHebei Normal UniversityShijiazhuangChina

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