Quantum Information Processing

, Volume 13, Issue 9, pp 2099–2113 | Cite as

Orthogonal-state-based deterministic secure quantum communication without actual transmission of the message qubits

  • Chitra Shukla
  • Anirban PathakEmail author


Recently, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih et al. (Phys Rev Lett 110:170502, 2013) using chained quantum Zeno effect. The counterfactual condition (claim) of Salih et al. is weakened here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker (non-counterfactual) condition, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of deterministic secure quantum communication is proposed using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. Further, it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states that can be used to implement the proposed protocol. The security of the proposed protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding, its security is independent of non-commutativity.


Quantum cryptography Entanglement swapping  Direct quantum communication 



AP thanks Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for support provided through the DST Project No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2010, and he also acknowledges the supports received from the Projects CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058 and CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0017 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. The authors also thank Dr. R. Srikanth for some useful technical discussions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jaypee Institute of Information TechnologyNoida India
  2. 2.RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of SciencePalacky UniversityOlomoucCzech Republic

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