Dephasing of Quantum Bits by a Quasi-Static Mesoscopic Environment
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We examine coherent processes in a two-state quantum system that is strongly coupled to a mesoscopic spin bath and weakly coupled to other environmental degrees of freedom. Our analysis is specifically aimed at understanding the quantum dynamics of solid-state quantum bits such as electron spins in semiconductor structures and superconducting islands. The role of mesoscopic degrees of freedom with long correlation times (local degrees of freedom such as nuclear spins and charge traps) in qubit-related dephasing is discussed in terms of a quasi-static bath. A mathematical framework simultaneously describing coupling to the slow mesoscopic bath and a Markovian environment is developed and the dephasing and decoherence properties of the total system are investigated. The model is applied to several specific examples with direct relevance to current experiments. Comparisons to experiments suggests that such quasi-static degrees of freedom play an important role in current qubit implementations. Several methods of mitigating the bath-induced error are considered.
KeywordsSpin bath decoherence dephasing quantum bit quantum dot superconducting qubit
PACS03.65.Yz 03.67.-a 73.21.La 74.78.Na
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