White supremacist groups and hate crime
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Hate group activity may incite criminal behavior or serve as protection from bias-based violence. I find that the presence of one or more active white supremacist chapters is associated with higher hate crime rates. I reject the hypothesis that chapter presence and hate crimes are symptomatic of the overall level of bias-based violence. Moreover, I reject the hypothesis that white supremacist groups form in response to an increase in antiwhite hate crimes, particularly those perpetrated by nonwhites.
KeywordsHate groups White supremacist Hate crime Collective action Protection
JEL ClassificationK14 J15 D71
Beneficial suggestions were received from seminar participants at the College of the Holy Cross, Lebanon Valley College, Macon State College, Mercer University, Stonehill College, meetings of the Southern Economic Association, and meetings of the Association for Private Enterprise Education. I wish to extend my gratitude to Angela K. Dills, Rey Hernandez-Julian, Peter Leeson, Matt Ryan, Diana Weinert Thomas, Robert Tollison, two anonymous referees, and the editor for their valuable comments and suggestions. Errors or deficiencies that have to this point survived this counsel are most assuredly mine alone.
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