Public Choice

, Volume 153, Issue 1–2, pp 17–36 | Cite as

Travel visas

  • Robert A. LawsonEmail author
  • Jayme S. Lemke


This paper examines travel visa restrictions in 188 countries. We measure travel visa requirements (1) facing foreign visitors into a given country and (2) facing citizens of a given nation traveling abroad. Our analysis shows that countries are more likely to impose visas on foreign visitors when they are large, but less likely when they are rich and economically free. Citizens from richer and more populous countries face fewer travel visa requirements when traveling abroad. Countries are less likely to impose visa requirements on similar nations.


Visas Travel Globalization Economic freedom 

JEL Classification

F20 J61 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abizadeh, A. (2010). Closed borders, human rights, and democratic legitimation. In D. Hollenbach (Ed.), Driven from home: Human rights and the new realities of forced migration. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Google Scholar
  2. Aguilera, A. (2008). Business travel and mobile workers. Transportation Research Part A, 42, 1109–1116. Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, E. (2007). Travel and communication and international differences in GDP per capita. Journal of International Development, 19, 315–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aradhyula, S., & Tronstad, R. (2003). Does tourism promote cross-border trade? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85, 569–579. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bordington, M. (2009). The Ukrainian approach to cultural heritage: A different way to utilize the historical heritage for economic development. Transition Studies Review, 16, 556–559. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chellaraj, G., Maskus, K., & Mattoo, A. (2008). The contribution of international graduate students to U.S. innovation. Review of International Economics, 16, 444–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dreher, A., Gaston, N., & Martens, P. (2008). Measuring globalisation: Gauging its consequences. New York: Springer. Google Scholar
  8. Freeman, R. (2006). People flows in globalization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20, 145–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gwartney, J., & Lawson, R. (2009). Economic freedom of the world: 2009 annual report. Vancouver: Fraser Institute. Google Scholar
  10. Hamermesh, D. (2006). The value of peripatetic economists: A sesqui-difference evaluation of Bob Gregory. The Economic Record, 82, 138–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ito, H., & Lee, D. (2005). Assessing the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on U.S. airline demand. Journal of Economics and Business, 57, 75–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Keynes, J. (1920/1988). The economic consequences of the peace. New York: Penguin. Google Scholar
  13. Klein, D., & Stern, C. (2007). Is there a free-market economist in the house? The policy views of American Economic Association members. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 66, 309–334. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kulendran, N., & Wilson, K. (2000a). Is there a relationship between international trade and international travel. Applied Economics, 32, 1001–1009. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kulendran, N., & Wilson, K. (2000b). Modelling business travel. Tourism Economics, 6, 47–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. (1998). Law and finance. Journal of Political Economy, 106, 1113–1155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luedtke, A., Byrd, D., & Alexander, K. (2010). The politics of visas. The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Winter/Spring, 147–161. Google Scholar
  18. Neiman, B., & Swagel, P. (2009). The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States. Journal of International Economics, 78, 86–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ng, E., & Whalley, J. (2008). Visas and work permits: Possible global negotiating initiatives. Review of International Organization, 3, 259–285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Poole, J. (2009). Business travel as an input to international trade. Working Paper. Accessed: 12/10/2009.
  21. Shan, J., & Wilson, K. (2001). Causality between trade and tourism: Empirical evidence from China. Applied Economic Letters, 8, 279–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.O’Neil Center for Global Markets and Freedom Cox School of BusinessSouthern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations