Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 90, Issue 4, pp 777–792 | Cite as

Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dimensions: Associations with Traits of the Multidimensional Personality Model among Adults

  • Rapson Gomez
  • Vasileios StavropoulosEmail author
Original Paper


The occurrence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) behaviours among adults has been supported by a proportion of scholars. The current work examines potential ODD dimensions and their associations with the primary personality traits of Tellegen’s [57] multi-dimensional conceptualization during adulthood. Two independent, general community, adult groups [Group 1: N = 214; mean age (SD) = 35.74 (16.60); Group 2: N = 205; mean age (SD) = 29.00 (12.42)] completed the Current Symptom Scale involving the eight ODD criteria. Group 2 additionally addressed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire –Brief Form (MPQ-BF). A series of Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were implemented. The three-dimensional ODD conceptualization of Burke and colleagues [14] referring to “Negative Affect”, “Oppositional Behavior”, and “Antagonistic Behavior” was confirmed. Considering personality traits, valuable associations were revealed between Oppositional Behavior and Aggression, Antagonistic Behavior and Social Potency as well as Harm Avoidance, and finally, Negative Affect and Stress Reaction, as well as Aggression. The dimensionality of ODD behaviours in adulthood and its correspondence with particular personality traits is approached in the context of psychological practice.


Oppositional defiant disorder Adults Dimensions Multidimensional personality model 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have any interests that could constitute a real, potential or apparent conflict of interest with respect to their involvement in the publication. The authors also declare that they do not have any financial or other relations (e.g. directorship, consultancy or speaker fee) with companies, trade associations, unions or groups (including civic associations and public interest groups) that may gain or lose financially from the results or conclusions in the study. Sources of funding are acknowledged.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of University’s Research Ethics Board and with the 1975 Helsinki Declaration.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants.


  1. 1.
    Abikoff HB, Jensen PS, Arnold LLE, Hoza B, Hechtman L, Pollack S, et al. Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30:349–59. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aebi M, Plattner B, Metzke CW, Bessler C, Steinhausen HC. Parent-and self-reported dimensions of oppositionality in youth: construct validity, concurrent validity, and the prediction of criminal outcomes in adulthood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54:941–9. Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author; 1994.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text revision). Washington, DC: Author; 2000.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: Author; 2013. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barkley R, Murphy KR. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a clinical workbook. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barry TD, Marcus DK, Barry CT, Coccaro EF. The latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder in children and. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47(12):1932–9. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Becker SP, Luebbe AM, Fite PJ, Greening L, Stoppelbein L. Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator. Aggress Behav. 2013;39:201–11. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boylan K, Vaillancourt T, Boyle MH, Szatmari P. Comorbidity of internalizing disorders in children with oppositional defiant disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16:484–94. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Publications; 2014.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burke JD. An affective dimension within oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among boys: personality and psychopathology outcomes into early adulthood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53(11):1176–83. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burke JD, Boylan K, Rowe R, Duku E, Stepp SD, Hipwell AE, et al. Identifying the irritability dimension of ODD: application of a modified bi-factor model across five large community samples of children. J Abnorm Psychol. 2014;123:841–51. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burke JD, Loeber R, Lahey BB, Rathouz PJ. Developmental transitions among affective and behavioral disorders in adolescent boys. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:1200–10. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burke JD, Waldman I, Lahey BB. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V. J Abnorm Psychol. 2010;119:739–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burns GL. Problem of item overlap between the psychopathy screening device and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder rating scale. Psychol Assess. 2000;12:447–50. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cohen J. A power analysis. Psychol Bull. 1992;112:155–9. Scholar
  17. 17.
    DiLalla DL. Dimensions of personality and their relationship to psychopathology: an analysis of the multidimensional personality questionnaire.( unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of Virginia, Charlottesville; 1989.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eigenhuis A, Kamphuis JH, Noordhof A. Development and validation of the Dutch brief form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF-NL). Assessment. 2013;20:565–75. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fite PJ, Greening L, Stoppelbein L, Fabiano GA. Confirmatory factor analysis of the antisocial process screening device with a clinical inpatient population. Assessment. 2009;16:103–14. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gadow KD, Sprafkin J, Schneider J, Nolan EE, Schwartz J, Weiss MD. ODD, ADHD, versus ODD/ADHD in clinic and community adults. J Atten Disord. 2007;11:374–83. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garson D. Statnotes: Topics in Multivariate Analysis: Factor Analysis; 2010. Retrieved from Accessed 10/08/2019.
  22. 22.
    Gomez R. Factor structure of parent and teacher ratings of the ODD symptoms for Malaysian primary school children. Asian J Psychiatr. 2017;25:22–6. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gomez R, Stavropoulos V. Maternal ratings of ODD symptoms: subtypes versus severity in a general community sample of children. Compr Psychiatry. 2018;81:81–90. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grucza RA, Goldberg LR. The comparative validity of 11 modern personality inventories: predictions of behavioral acts, informant reports, and clinical indicators. J Pers Assess. 2007;89(2):167–87. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hemphala M, Tengstrom A. Associations between psychopathic traits and mental disorders among adolescents with substance use problems. Br J Clin Psychol. 2010;49:109–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Herzhoff K, Smack AJ, Reardon KW, Martel M, Tackett JL. Child personality accounts for oppositional defiant disorder comorbidity patterns. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2017;45:327–35. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hu LT, Bentler PM. Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychol Methods. 1998;3(4):424. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Javdani S, Finy MS, Verona E. Evaluation of the validity of the multidimensional personality questionnaire–simplified-wording form (MPQ-SF) in adolescents with treatment histories. Assessment. 2014;21:352–62. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnston OG, Derella OJ, Burke JD. Identification of oppositional defiant disorder in young adult college students. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2018;40:563–72. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim HW, Cho SC, Kim BN, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yeo JY. Does oppositional defiant disorder have temperament and psychopathological profiles independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:412–8. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim RS. Standardized regression coefficients as indices of effect sizes in meta-analysis. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Florida State University, Florida, USA; 2011.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krieger FV, Polanczyk GV, Goodman R, Rohde LA, Graeff-Martins AS, Salum G, et al. Dimensions of oppositionality in a Brazilian community sample: testing the DSM-5 proposal and etiological links. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;52(4):389–400. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krueger RF, Eaton NR. A personality trait model for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM): the challenges ahead. Personal Disord Theory Res Treat. 2010;1:135–7. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krueger RF, McGue M, Iacono WG. The higher-order structure of common DSM mental disorders: Internalization, externalization, and their connections to personality. Personal Individ Differ. 2001;30:1245–59. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Krueger RF, Schmutte PS, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Campbell K, Silva PA. Personality traits linked to crime among men and women: evidence from a birth cohort. J Abnorm Psychol. 1994;103:328–38. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kuhne M, Schachar R, Tannock R. Impact of comorbid oppositional or conduct problems on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:1715–25. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lahey BB, Waldman ID, McBurnett K. Annotation: the development of antisocial behavior: an integrative causal model. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1999;40:669–82. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leadbeater BJ, Thompson K, Gruppuso V. Co-occurring trajectories of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and oppositional defiance from adolescence to young adulthood. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2012;41:719–30. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lynam DR. Early identification of chronic offenders: who is the fledgling psychopath? Psychol Bull. 1996;120:209–34. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mahaffey BL, Watson D, Clark LA, Kotov R. Clinical and personality traits in emotional disorders: evidence of a common framework. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016;125:758–67. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson EB, Schutte NS. The relationship between the five-factor model of personality and symptoms of clinical disorders: a meta-analysis. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2004;27:101–14. Scholar
  42. 42.
    McCrae RR, John OP. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. J Pers. 1992;60:175–215. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mikolajewski AJ, Taylor J, Iacono WG (2017) Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions: genetic influences and risk for later psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 58(6):702–710. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Miller CJ, Flory JD, Scott RM, Harty SC, Newcorn JH, Halperin JM (2008) Childhood ADHD and the emergence of personality disorders in adolescence: A prospective follow-up study. J Clin Psychiatry 69(9):1477Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Munkvold L, Lundervold A, Lie SA, Manger T (2009) Should there be separate parent and teacher‐based categories of ODD? Evidence from a general population. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50(10):1264–1272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Muthén LK, Muthén BO. Mplus statistical modeling software: release 7.0. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén; 2012.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Newcorn JH, Halperin JM, Jensen PS, Abikoff HB, Arnold LE, Cantwell DP, et al. Symptom profiles in children with ADHD: effects of comorbidity and gender. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40:137–46. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nock M, Kazdin AE, Hiripi E, Kessler RC. Prevalence, correlates and persistence of oppositional defiant disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48:703–13. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Overbey GA, Snell WE, Callis KE. Subclinical ADHD, stress, and coping in romantic relationships of university students. J Atten Disord. 2011;15:67. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Patrick CJ, Kramer MD. Multidimensional personality questionnaire. In: Ziegler-Hill V, Shackelford TK, editors. Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. New York: Springer; 2017. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Patrick CJ, Curtin JJ, Tellegen A. Development and validation of a brief form of the multidimensional personality questionnaire. Psychol Assess. 2002;14:150–63. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Patrick CJ, Kramer MD, Tellegen A, Verona E, Kaemmer B. Development and preliminary validation of a simplified-wording form of the multidimensional personality questionnaire. Assessment. 2013;20:405–18. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reimherr FW, Marchant BK, Olsen JL, Wender PH, Robison RJ. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2013;17:102–13. Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rowe R, Costello EJ, Angold A, Copeland WE, Maughan B. Developmental pathways in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2010;119(4):726. Scholar
  55. 55.
    SPSS. Statistical package for the social sciences, version 20 [computer program]. Chicago: SPSS Inc.; 2019.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stringaris A, Goodman R. Three dimensions of oppositionality in youth. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(3):216–23. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tellegen A. Manual for the multidimensional personality questionnaire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tellegen A, Waller NG. Exploring personality through test construction: development of the multidimensional personality questionnaire. In: Boyle GJ, Matthews G, Saklofske DH, editors. Handbook of personality theory and testing: Personality measurement and assessment, vol. 2. London: Sage; 2008. p. 261–92. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tellegen A. Brief manual for the multidimensional personality questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1031–1010; 1982.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Trepat E, Ezpeleta L. Sex differences in oppositional defiant disorder. Psicothema. 2011;23:666–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Waschbusch DA, Willoughby MT (2008) Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and callous‐unemotional traits as moderators of conduct problems when examining impairment and aggression in elementary school children. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression 34(2):139–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Weiss MD, Wasdell M, Gadow KD, Greenfield B, Hechtman L, Gibbins C. Clinical correlates of oppositional defiant disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Postgrad Med. 2011;123:177–84. Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wesselhoeft R, Stringaris A, Sibbersen C, Kristensen RV, Bojesen AB, Talati A. Dimensions and subtypes of oppositionality and their relation to comorbidity and psychosocial characteristics. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018. Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zastrow BL, Martel MM, Widiger TA. Preschool oppositional defiant disorder: a disorder of negative affect, Surgency, and disagreeableness. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2018;47:967–77. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federation University, Mount Helen CampusBallaratAustralia
  2. 2.Cairnmillar Institute, Hawthorn East CampusMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations