Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 90, Issue 1, pp 117–128 | Cite as

Psychometric Testing of Three Chinese Online-Related Addictive Behavior Instruments among Hong Kong University Students

  • Chun-Wai Yam
  • Amir H. Pakpour
  • Mark D. Griffiths
  • Wai-Yan Yau
  • Cheuk-Long Matthew Lo
  • Jennifer M. T. Ng
  • Chung-Ying LinEmail author
  • Hildie Leung
Original Paper


Given that there is a lack of instruments assessing internet-related addictions among Chinese population, this study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scales- Short Form (IGDS-SF9), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among Hong Kong university students. Participants aged between 17 and 30 years participated in the present study (n = 307; 32.4% males; mean [SD] age = 21.64 [8.11]). All the participants completed the IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, SABAS, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to examine the factorial structures and the unidimensionality for IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, and SABAS. CFAs demonstrated that the three scales were all unidimensional with satisfactory fit indices: comparative fit index = 0.969 to 0.992. In addition, the IGDS-SF9 and BSMAS were slightly modified based on the modification index in CFA. The Chinese IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, and SABAS are valid instruments to assess the addiction levels of internet-related activities for Hong Kong university students.


Online addiction Gaming addiction Smartphone addiction Social media addiction Addiction psychometrics 



The study was supported by the Faculty Collaborative Research Scheme between Social Sciences and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social SciencesThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHung HomHong Kong
  2. 2.Social Determinants of Health Research CenterQazvin University of Medical SciencesQazvinIran
  3. 3.Department of Nursing, School of Health and WelfareJönköping UniversityJönköpingSweden
  4. 4.International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology DepartmentNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  5. 5.Department of Applied Social Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social SciencesThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHung HomHong Kong

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