Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 90, Issue 1, pp 41–46 | Cite as

Treatment of Adult ADHD without Stimulants: Effectiveness in A Dually Diagnosed Correctional Population

  • Leo BastiaensEmail author
  • Olivia Scott
  • James Galus
Original Paper


Adult ADHD has received increased attention in the past two decades. There is a complex relationship between ADHD and substance use disorders, with ADHD being a risk factor for and a moderator in the treatment of addiction. ADHD is also a risk factor for the development of antisocial personality disorder. As a result, ADHD is prevalent in a correctional dually diagnosed population. This retrospective chart review reports on the effectiveness of the treatment for ADHD in a population with substance use disorders, residing in a correctional community center for treatment and reintegration purposes. Only patients with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were included and only nonstimulants were used. After an average of four visits, or approximately four months, patient showed a moderate response with a pretreatment to posttreatment effect size of 1.4. Sixty-four percent of patients responded and 35% remitted, according to the Clinical Global Index Severity Scale as the primary outcome measure. While stimulants are considered the first-line treatment for ADHD, they clearly present challenges in certain populations, especially in patients with significant antisocial and addiction histories. It does appear that non-stimulants are effective in this population. It is speculated that the response and remission rate could be improved by adding ADHD specific psychosocial interventions.


Adult ADHD Addiction Non-stimulants Effectiveness 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. No funding received.

Human Rights

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Renewal Treatment, Inc.PittsburghUSA

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