Advertisement

Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 89, Issue 4, pp 841–853 | Cite as

The relationship between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism, delinquent peer affiliation, and antisocial behavior with a consideration of sex differences

  • Eric M. CookeEmail author
  • Todd Armstrong
  • Danielle Boisvert
  • Jessica Wells
  • Richard H. Lewis
  • Sheree Hughes-Stamm
  • David Gangitano
Original Paper

Abstract

With the advent of new and more readily usable gene sequencing techniques, researchers have been able to examine the interactions between genes and the environment (G X E) within a multitude of scientific perspectives. One area that G X E interactions have been implicated in is the development of antisocial behavior (ASB). Antisocial behavior consists of a wide range of maladaptive behaviors and has been at the forefront of public health and mental health concerns for decades. One genetic polymorphism that has been associated with ASB is MAOA-uVNTR. Meta-analytic studies have found the low-activity MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism to be associated with ASB from early childhood through adulthood. Recently, studies have begun to examine the independent and interactive G X E relationship between MAOA-uVNTR and deviant peer affiliation on ASB. Inconsistent with the broader literature, these findings suggest an interaction between high-activity MAOA-uVNTR and deviant peer affiliation on ASB in a mixed sex sample. The current study re-examines the relationship between MAOA-uVNTR, peer delinquency, and ASB with a consideration of sex differences in 291 college participants. Findings indicate an interaction between the low-activity allele of the MAOA-uVNTR and peer delinquency in predicting ASB. Results are also specific to differences between the sexes. Implications and future research are discussed.

Keywords

G X E MAOA Peer delinquency Antisocial behavior Sex differences 

Notes

Funding

This study was supported by an Enhancement Grant for Professional Development from the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at Sam Houston State University. Study Sponsors were not involved in the development of study methodology or in any aspect of study implementation, data analysis, or report writing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution and/or national committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study obtained informed consent from all participants.

References

  1. 1.
    Achenbach TM, Howell CT. Are American children’s problems getting worse? A 13-year comparison. J Am Acad Child Psy. 1993;32(6):1145–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Loeber R, Farrington DP, Stouthamer-Loeber M, Van Kammen WB. Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. Psychology Press. 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hinshaw SP, Simmel C, Heller TL. Multimethod assessment of covert antisocial behavior in children: laboratory observations, adult ratings, and child self-report. Psychol Assess. 1995;7(2):209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li JJ, Lee SS. Latent class analysis of antisocial behavior: interaction of serotonin transporter genotype and maltreatment. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(6):789–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loeber R, Schmaling KB. Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems: a meta-analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1985;13(2):337–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frick PJ, Lahey BB, Loeber R, Tannenbaum L, Van Horn Y, Christ MAG, et al. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: a meta-analytic review of factor analyses and cross-validation in a clinical sample. Clin Psychol Rev. 1993;13(4):319–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fergusson DM, Swain-Campbell NR, Horwood LJ. Deviant peer affiliations, crime and substance use: a fixed effects regression analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30(4):419–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boardman JD, Domingue BW, Fletcher JM. How social and genetic factors predict friendship networks. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109(43):17377–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harden KP, Hill JE, Turkheimer E, Emery RE. Gene-environment correlation and interaction in peer effects on adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. Behav Genet. 2008;38(4):339–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gardner TW, Dishion TJ, Connell AM. Adolescent self-regulation as resilience: resistance to antisocial behavior within the deviant peer context. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36(2):273–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Snyder J, McEachern A, Schrepferman L, Just C, Jenkins M, Roberts S, et al. Contribution of peer deviancy training to the early development of conduct problems: mediators and moderators. Behav Ther. 2010;41(3):317–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beaver KM, DeLisi M, Wright JP, Vaughn MG. Gene-environment interplay and delinquent involvement evidence of direct, indirect, and interactive effects. J Adolesc Res. 2009;24(2):147–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brendgen M, Boivin M, Vitaro F, Bukowski WM, Dionne G, Tremblay RE, et al. Linkages between children’s and their friends’ social and physical aggression: evidence for a gene-environment interaction? Child Dev. 2008;79(1):13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vitaro F, Brendgen M, Girard A, Dionne G, Tremblay RE, Boivin M. Links between friends’ physical aggression and adolescents’ physical aggression: what happens if gene-environment correlations are controlled? Int J Behav Dev. 2016;40(3):234–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Lier P, Boivin M, Dionne G, Vitaro F, Brendgen M, Koot H, et al. Kindergarten children’s genetic vulnerabilities interact with friends’ aggression to promote children’s own aggression. J Am Acad Child Psy. 2007;46(8):1080–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beaver KM, Holtfreter K. Biosocial influences on fraudulent behaviors. J Genet Psychol. 2009;170(2):101–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee SS. Deviant peer affiliation and antisocial behavior: interaction with monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2011;39(3):321–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lu YF, Menard S. The interplay of MAOA and peer influences in predicting adult criminal behavior. Psychiat Quart. 2017;88(1):115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Byrd AL, Manuck SB. MAOA, childhood maltreatment, and antisocial behavior: meta-analysis of a gene-environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75(1):9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ficks CA, Waldman ID. Candidate genes for aggression and antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of association studies of the 5httlpr and maoa-uvntr. Behav Genet. 2014;44(5):427–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dishion TJ, Owen LD. A longitudinal analysis of friendships and substance use: bidirectional influence from adolescence to adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2002;38(4):480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dodge KA, Coie JD, Lynam D. Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In: Damon W, Lerner RM, editors. Child and adolescent development and advanced copy. New Jersey: Wiley; 2006. p. 437–72.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Allen M, Donohue WA, Griffin A, Ryan D, Turner MMM. Comparing the influence of parents and peers on the choice to use drugs a meta-analytic summary of the literature. Crim Justice Behav. 2003;30(2):163–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Allen JP, Porter MR, McFarland FC. Leaders and followers in adolescent close friendships: susceptibility to peer influence as predictor of risky behavior, friendship instability, and depression. Dev Psychopathol. 2006;18(01):155–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Snyder J, Schrepferman L, Oeser J, Patterson G, Stoolmiller M, Johnson K, et al. Deviancy training and association with deviant peers in young children: occurrence and contribution to early-onset conduct problems. Dev Psychopathol. 2005;17(02):397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Snyder J, Schrepferman L, McEachern A, Barner S, Johnson K, Provines J. Peer deviancy training and peer coercion: dual processes associated with early-onset conduct problems. Child Dev. 2008;79(2):252–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Monahan KC, Steinberg L, Cauffman E. Affiliation with antisocial peers, susceptibility to peer influence, and antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2009;45(6):1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Snyder J, Schrepferman LP, Bullard L, McEachern AD, Patterson GR. Covert antisocial behavior, peer deviancy training, parenting processes, and sex differences in the development of antisocial behavior during childhood. Dev Psychopathol. 2012;24(03):1117–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Connolly EJ, Schwartz JA, Nedelec JL, Beaver KM, Barnes JC. Difference slopes for different folks: genetic influences on growth in delinquent peer association and delinquency during adolescence. J Youth Adolescence. 2015;44(7):1413–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boisvert D, Boutwell BB, Vaske J, Newsome J. Genetic and environmental overlap between delinquent peer association and delinquency in adolescence. Crim Justice Behav. 2013;41(1):58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sabol SZ, Hu S, Hamer D. A functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promotor. Hum Genet. 1998;103(3):273–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stetler DA, Davis C, Leavitt K, Schriger I, Benson K, Bahkta S, et al. Association of low-activity maoa allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;58:69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wells J, Armstrong T, Boisvert D, Lewis R, Gangitano D, Hughes-Stamm S. Stress, genes, and generalizability across gender: effects of MAOA and stress sensitivity on crime and delinquency. Criminology. 2017;55(3):548–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Widom CS, Brzustowicz LM. Maoa and the “cycle of violence:” childhood abuse and neglect, maoa genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60(7):684–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric M. Cooke
    • 1
    Email author
  • Todd Armstrong
    • 2
  • Danielle Boisvert
    • 1
  • Jessica Wells
    • 3
  • Richard H. Lewis
    • 1
  • Sheree Hughes-Stamm
    • 4
  • David Gangitano
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Criminal Justice and CriminologySam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeUniversity of Nebraska OmahaOmahaUSA
  3. 3.School of Public ServiceBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA
  4. 4.Department of Forensic ScienceSam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations