Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 86, Issue 1, pp 123–136 | Cite as

Rates and Correlations of Change in Three Dimensions of Recovery Within A Recovery Model Oriented Therapeutic Community

  • Matt SnyderEmail author
  • Lisa Schactman
  • Sharon Young
Original Paper


This is a 10 year longitudinal study of recovery progress within a residential program based upon therapeutic community principles and a Seven Domains Enhanced Recovery Model (Young and Ensing, 1999). A broad suite of measures associated with one of three definitions of recovery (symptom, function, and personal focused recovery) were administered along three longitudinal courses. Normalized mean rates of change and mean shared variances for these scales were examined for three subgroups based on length of stay. Measures associated with the same definition of recovery correlated moderately to strongly but measures did not correlate between facets, suggesting relative independence between definition facets. The results of this analysis suggest the existence of qualitatively distinct subgroups with different change dynamics. The aggregate means of these facets showed correlated change, while individual recovery pathways did not, suggesting significant heterogeneity in individual pathways of recovery. These findings support the conceptualization of recovery as a complex, heterogeneous and multi-faceted process. Practically, these findings emphasize the need for holistic, flexible and individualized recovery supports and that research into these constructs should include at least these facets over a longitudinal time frame.


Severe and persistent Recovery Residential Therapeutic community Effectiveness Dynamics Rates 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CooperRiis Healing FarmMill SpringUSA

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