Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 241–255 | Cite as

Beck Hopelessness Scale: Exploring its Dimensionality in Patients with Schizophrenia

  • Yu-Chen KaoEmail author
  • Yia-Ping Liu
  • Chien-Wen Lu
Original Paper


Hopelessness is a pre-eminent risk factor for suicide and non-fatal self-harm. Although the Beck Hopelessness Scale is often used for schizophrenia, its factor structure has been given relatively little consideration in this context. This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Taiwanese version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS-T) in a chronic schizophrenia out-patient sample. One hundred and two (102) outpatients were evaluated using the translated Taiwanese version of the BHS (BHS-T), as well as several Beck-related symptom rating scales and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psycho-pathology. The patients were also evaluated for suicidal intent using the critical items of the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and suicide attempts. The psychometric properties of the BHS-T were also evaluated, including construct validity, internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergence, and discriminative validity. The BHS-T showed good overall reliability and stability over time. This translated scale comprised a two-factor solution corresponding negative expectation and loss of motivation dimensions. Differences in mean hopelessness scores between participants with and without suicidal intent were significant. The results also indicated that, among individuals with schizophrenia, “negative expectation in the future” is more closely linked to suicide intent than “loss of motivation for the future”. The BHS-T is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the multi-dimensionality of hopelessness and may complement clinical suicidal risk assessments in individuals with schizophrenia.


BHS Hopelessness Suicide Schizophrenia Reliability Validity 


Conflict of interests

The authors declare no competing or conflicts of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatrySongshan Armed Forces General HospitalTaipei, TaiwanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyNational Defense Medical CenterTaipei, TaiwanPeople’s Republic of China

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