Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 83, Issue 1, pp 91–102 | Cite as

Neurologic and Psychiatric Manifestations of Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity

  • Jessica R. Jackson
  • William W. Eaton
  • Nicola G. Cascella
  • Alessio Fasano
  • Deanna L. Kelly
Original Article

Abstract

Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease dependent on gluten (a protein present in wheat, rye or barley) that occurs in about 1% of the population and is generally characterized by gastrointestinal complaints. More recently the understanding and knowledge of gluten sensitivity (GS), has emerged as an illness distinct from celiac disease with an estimated prevalence 6 times that of CD. Gluten sensitive people do not have villous atrophy or antibodies that are present in celiac disease, but rather they can test positive for antibodies to gliadin. Both CD and GS may present with a variety of neurologic and psychiatric co-morbidities, however, extraintestinal symptoms may be the prime presentation in those with GS. However, gluten sensitivity remains undertreated and underrecognized as a contributing factor to psychiatric and neurologic manifestiations. This review focuses on neurologic and psychiatric manifestations implicated with gluten sensitivity, reviews the emergence of gluten sensitivity distinct from celiac disease, and summarizes the potential mechanisms related to this immune reaction.

Keywords

Gluten Schizophrenia Neurologic Immune Celiac Psychiatric 

Notes

Conflict of interest

All authors report no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica R. Jackson
    • 1
  • William W. Eaton
    • 2
  • Nicola G. Cascella
    • 2
  • Alessio Fasano
    • 3
  • Deanna L. Kelly
    • 1
  1. 1.Maryland Psychiatric Research CenterUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Johns Hopkins School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Center for Celiac ResearchUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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