Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 1–41 | Cite as

A History of Private Psychiatric Hospitals in the USA: From Start to Almost Finished

Abstract

There has been no comprehensive history of the scope and roles of private psychiatric hospitals in the USA. This paper documents the origins, functions, support, and contributions of private psychiatric hospitals from their beginnings in the eighteenth century through 2003. An interesting feature of nineteenth century psychiatry was the interplay between private and public institutions which reveals a pattern of the public purchase of private beds that is conceptually much like what we have today. From the early twentieth century through 1970, advancements in somatic treatments, new ways of using the hospital milieu, the introduction of antipsychotic medications, the shift from institution-based to noninstitution-based loci of acute and long-term treatment and care, the beginnings of day hospitals and a shortage of psychiatrists and nurses, all impacted upon the private psychiatric hospital. While the private psychiatric hospitals expanded in number and in responsibilities during these decades, at the end of the 1960's their future was a matter of serious debate. A comprehension of the history of the private psychiatric hospital since 1970 is based on an understanding of the impact of for-profit hospital chains, managed care, the privatization of traditionally public services, the requirement for “treatment in the least restrictive alternative,” further erosion of the use of any form of inpatient treatment, and an overall decrease in expenditures for mental health services. The future of the private psychiatric hospital may well be based on its ability both to maintain its traditional, patient-centered approach and to create innovative, effective, efficient, novel systems of care and treatment.

Key Words

psychiatry insane asylum private psychiatric hospitals state hospital mental hospital for-profit hospital chain 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hall JK, Zilboorg G, Bunker HA (Eds): One Hundred Years of American Psychiatry. New York, Columbia University Press, 1944.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deutsch A: The Mentally Ill in America. New York, Columbia University Press, 1949.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grob GN: Mental Institutions in America. Social Policy to 1875. New York, Free Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grob GN: Mental Illness and American Society, 1875–1940. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barton WE: The History and Influence of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hartford CT: The Story of the Institute of Living. Neuro-Psychiatric Institute of the Hartford Retreat, 1939.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Braceland FJ: The Institute of Living, 1822–1972. Hartford, Institute of Living, 1972.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meigs JF: A History of the First Quarter of the Second Century of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Philadelphia, Collins, 1877.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bond, ED: Dr. Kirkbride and His Mental Hospital. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott, 1947.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Forbush B: The Sheppard & Enoch Pratt Hospital, 1853–1970. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Butler Hospital – Its Story. Providence, Trustees and Superintendent of Butler Hospital, 1926.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Friends' Asylum for the Insane, 1813–1913. Philadelphia, John C. Winston, n.d.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Russell WL: The New York Hospital. A History of Psychiatric Services, 1771–1936, New York, Columbia University Press, 1945.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kubie LS: The Riggs Story. NY, Paul B. Hoeber, 1960.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Swift EM, Beach M: Brattleboro Retreat 1834–1984. 150 Years of Caring. Brattleboro, VT., Brattleboro Retreat, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sutton SB: Crossroads in Psychiatry: A History of the McLean Hospital. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beam A: Gracefully Insane. The Rise and Fall of Americaapos;s Premier Mental Hospital. New York, Public Affairs, 2001.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kirkbride TS: A Sketch of the history, building, and organization of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane & American Journal of Insanity 2:97–114, 1845.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Earle P: Historical and descriptive account of the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane. American Journal of Insanity 2:1–12, 1845.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Massachusetts. McLean Asylum for the Insane. American Journal of Insanity 2:55–58, 1845.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ray I: The Butler Hospital for the Insane. American Journal of Insanity 5:1–24, 1848.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Connecticut. Retreat for the Insane. American Journal of Insanity 2:66–68, 1845.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pennsylvania. Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason. American Journal of Insanity 2:147–151, 1845.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    New York. Report of the Bloomingdale Asylum: 1871. American Journal of Insanity 28:549, 1872.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vermont. Thirty-first annual report of the officers of the Vermont Asylum for the Insane. American Journal of Insanity 24:420, 1868.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Connecticut. Forty-fifth and forty-sixty annual reports of the officers of the Retreat for the Insane at Hartford, Conn: 1869 and 1870. American Journal of Insanity 27:326, 1871.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rhode Island. Report of the Butler Hospital for the Insane, Providence: 1877. American Journal of Insanity 34:548, 1878.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pollock HM, Furbush EM: Patients with mental disease, mental defect, epilepsy, alcoholism and drug addiction in institutions in the United States, January 1, 1920. Mental Hygiene 5:139–169, 1921.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jarvis E: On the proper functions of private institutions or homes for the insane. American Journal of Insanity 17:19–31, 1860.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mitchell A: The Insane in Private Dwellings. Edinburgh, Edmonston and Douglas, 1864.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    In memoriam. Alienist and Neurologist 13:195, 1892.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Summary. American Journal of Insanity 35:592, 1879.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Summary. American Journal of Insanity 36:539, 1880.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Notes and comments. American Journal of Insanity 48:552–556, 1892.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kirkbride TS: Remarks on cottages for certain classes of patients, in connection with hospitals for the insane. American Journal of Insanity 7:374–379, 1851.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Private institutions for the insane. American Journal of Insanity 12:102–104, 1855.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Private asylums. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 101:243, 1879.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wood GB: History of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane. American Journal of Insanity 9:209–213, 1853.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nakatani Y: Psychiatry and the law in Japan. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 23:589–604, 2000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Private vs. public asylums. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 28:471, 1891.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Robinson WF: Treatment of insanity in other than public establishments. American Journal of Insanity 52:530–535, 1896.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dr. William Stokes, of the Mount Hope Institution near Baltimore, MD., and the American Journal of Insanity. American Journal of Insanity 5:262–276, 1849.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Twelfth Biennial Report of the Board of State Commissioners of Public Charities of the State of Illinois. Springfield, IL, H.W. Rokker, 1893.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vermont. American Journal of Insanity 46:434, 1890.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Death of Dr. George Cook. American Journal of Insanity 33:132–135, 1876.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ingram FH: Asylum notes. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 18:346–347, 1891.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Maryland. American Journal of Insanity 75:573–574, 1919.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    From the report of the McLean Asylum & . American Journal of Insanity 21:235–238, 1864.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    New York. American Journal of Insanity 27:331, 1871.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maryland. American Journal of Insanity 31:101–102, 1874.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    The Friends Asylum & . American Journal of Insanity 46:433, 1890.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maryland. American Journal of Insanity 33:555–556, 1877.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Geller JL, Harris M: Women of the Asylum. New York, Anchor Books, 1994.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grob GN: Mental Illness and American Society 1875–1990. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bureau of the Census: Insane and Feeble-Minded in Institutions, 1910. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1914.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mitchell SW: Address before the fiftieth annual meeting of the American Medico-Psychological Association, held in Philadelphia, May 16, 1894. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 21:413–437, 1894.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    The licensing of private asylum. American Journal of Insanity 46:411–412, 1890.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bellevue Place. Alienist and Neurologist 17:392, 1896.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Two homes for the nervous and insane. Alienist and Neurologist 1:391, 1880.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Provision for professional advertising in the Code. Alienist and Neurologist 15:135–137, 1894.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Advertising doctors and the Code. Alienist and Neurologist 15:503–504, 1894.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Eighth Biennial Report of the Board of State Commissioners of Public Charities of the State of Illinois. Springfield IL, H.W. Rokker, 1885.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Insane hospital annexes. Alienist and Neurologist 1:558, 1880.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Furloughing the insane. Alienist and Neurologist 1:559, 1880.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cincinnati Sanitarium. Alienist and Neurologist 4:722–723, 1883.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thirty-sixth annual report of the physicians and superintendents of the McLean Asylum for the Insane, to the trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital, January 25th, 1854. American Journal of Insanity 11:180–186, 1854.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    In the thirty-third and thirty-fourth annual reports of the Retreat at Hartford & . American Journal of Insanity 15:331–333, 1859.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maryland. American Journal of Insanity 28:437–438, 1872.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, Philadelphia: 1877. American Journal of Insanity 34:557–562, 1878.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    The asylum near Frankford, in Pennsylvania. American Journal of Insanity 8:179–181, 1851.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, for the year 1849. American Journal of Insanity 6:322–329, 1850.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Second day-morning session. American Journal of Insanity 10:74–79, 1853.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane for the year 1853. American Journal of Insanity 11:186–188, 1854.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Since the date of the last report & American Journal of Insanity 17:75–76, 1860.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pennsylvania. American Journal of Insanity 24:442–446, 1868.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fifty-second annual report of the superintendent of the McLean Asylum for the Insane, 1869. American Journal of Insanity 27:367, 1871.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Massachusetts—McLean Hospital, Waverly. American Journal of Insanity 54:315–317, 1897.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gymnasium for the insane. American Journal of Insanity 53:626–627, 1897.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rhode Island. American Journal of Insanity 68:771–772, 1912.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Friendapos;s Asylum for the Insane, Frankford, Philadelphia. American Journal of Insanity 68:768–769, 1912.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital, Townson. American Journal of Insanity 71:423, 1914.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bloomingdale Hospital, White Plains. American Journal of Insanity 73:333–334, 1916.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    The McLean Asylum & . American Journal of Insanity 8:162–165, 1851.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dr. Stokes & . American Journal of Insanity 8:209–212, 1852.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Report of the trustees and superintendent of the Butler Hospital for the Insane & . American Journal of Insanity 12:280–285, 1856.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane for the year 1854. American Journal of Insanity 12:361–364, 1856.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Respecting “premature removals” & . American Journal of Insanity 20:497–498, 1864.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dr. Butler & . American Journal of Insanity 8:187–188, 1851.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Andrews JB: The distribution and care of the insane in the United States. American Journal of Insanity 44:192–211, 1887.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Curwen J: Rest in nervous diseases. Alienist and Neurologist 2:380–391, 1881.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sinkler W: Diseases and conditions to which the rest treatment is adapted. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 17:321–338, 1892.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Niles HR: Hydrotherapy in the treatment of mental diseases. American Journal of Insanity 55:443–447, 1899.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Channing W: Physical training of the insane. American Journal of Insanity 46:166–175, 1889.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ninth Biennial Report of the State Board of Charities and Corrections of the State of California from July 1, 1918 to June 30, 1920. Sacramento, CA, California State Printing Office, 1922.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    McLean Hospital, Waverly. American Journal of Insanity 57:397–399, 1900.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Psychiatry at the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital. American Journal of Insanity 57:553–558, 1901.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Psychiatry and the McLean Hospital. American Journal of Insanity 58:535–540, 1902.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    The New McLean Hospital. American Journal of Insanity 60:157–161, 1903.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bloomingdale Hospital, White Plains. American Journal of Insanity 70:536–537, 1913.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pennsylvania. Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: 1874. American Journal of Insanity 32:95–99, 1875.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Menninger K: Recollections. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 27:141–147, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kalinowski LB, Hoch PH: Shock Treatments and Other Somatic Procedures in Psychiatry. NY, Grune and Stratton, 1946.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Robbins LL: Reflections 1940–1966. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 30:190–206, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chlorpromazine and Mental Health. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1955.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Snyder SH, Taylor KM, Coyle JT, et al. The role of brain dopamine in behavioral regulation and the action of psychotropic drugs. American Journal of Psychiatry 127:199–207, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Glasscote RM, Kanno CK: General Hospital Psychiatric Units: A National Survey. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association and National Association for Mental Health, 1965.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jackson B: The revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. American Journal of Psychiatry 127:65–73, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Standards for Psychiatric Facilities. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1969.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Reed LS, Myers ES, Scheidemandel PL: Health Insurance and Psychiatric Care: Utilization and Cost. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1972.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    The Presidentapos;s Commission on Mental Health. Washington, DC, Superintendent of Documents, PR 39.8:M52/R/V.1, 1978.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Geller JL: The last half-century of psychiatric services as reflected in Psychiatric Services. Psychiatric Services 51:41–67, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pollack HM: (Book Review): Report of Census of Institutions for Mental Disease, U.S. Census Bureau. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1925.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pollack HM: Outcome of mental diseases in the United States. Mental Hygiene 9:783–804, 1925.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Copp O: Some problems confronting the Association. American Journal of Psychiatry 78:1–13, 1921.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Notes and comments. Mental Hygiene 7:645–647, 1923.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hospitals for nervous and mental patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 100:895–897, 901–910, 1933.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Grimes JM: Institutional Care of Mental Patients in the United States. Chicago, Author, 1934.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals: 1970 Roster of Member Hospitals: Medical Directors, Administrative Officers. Leonia, New Jersey. National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals [now National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems, Washington, DC], 1971.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Campbell CM: The work of the psychopathic hospital. Mental Hygiene 14:883–900, 1930.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brown FW: General hospital facilities for mental patients. Mental Hygiene 15:378–384, 1931.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Heldt TJ: Psychiatric services in general hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 95:865–871, 1939.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Young GA: Experiences with psychiatric departments in the general hospitals of Omaha. American Journal of Psychiatry 96:69–75, 1939.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 91:216–217, 1934.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    “Lost and Found.” Mental Hygiene 22:167, 1939.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Friedman JH: An organization of ex-patients of a psychiatric hospital. Mental Hygiene 23:414–420, 1939.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sandy WC: The presidentapos;s address. American Journal of Psychiatry 97:1–12, 1940.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hincks CM: What is the future of American psychiatry? American Journal of Psychiatry 100:195–198, 1944.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gregg A: A critique of psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry 101:285–291, 1945.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Keyes BL, Bookhammer RS, Kaplan AJ: Psychiatry in the general hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry 105:90–95, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Costs of long-term mental-hospital care. Mental Hygiene 33:155–156, 1949.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hamilton SW: The mental hospital in the program of mental health. Mental Hygiene 27:403–411, 1943.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hamilton SW: Life in our mental hospitals—its meaning for the individual. Mental Hygiene 27:4–9, 1943.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stevenson GS: Ideals and principles for proper management of the mentally ill. Mental Hygiene 26:227–234, 1942.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tarumianz MA, Bateman JF, Elliott GA, et al.: Standards for psychiatric hospitals and out-patient clinics approved by the American Psychiatric Association. American Journal of Psychiatry 102:264–269, 1946.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sherman IC, Hoffman HR: Facilities in private mental institutions in the United States and Canada. American Journal of Psychiatry 106:268–269, 1950.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    The Hospital Survey and Construction Act. Mental Hygiene 30:682, 1946.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Plans available for psychiatric wards in general hospital. Mental Hygiene 30:683, 1946.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Felix RH: The National Mental Health Act. Mental Hygiene 31:363–374, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Stanton AH, Schwartz MS: The Mental Hospital. New York, Basic Books 1954.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Myers JM, Smith LH: The organization of a mental hospital. Mental Hospitals 7 (6): 6–10, 1956.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Otis WJ, Robinson GW: Private Hospitals, in Overholser W (Ed): Mental Hospitals 1950. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1951.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Reed PB: The role of the private psychiatric hospital. Mental Hospitals 9 (2): 34–35, 1958.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Billings EG: A survey of conditions of private psychiatric practice throughout the United States and Canada. American Journal of Psychiatry 108: 171–172, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    The closing of Butler Hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry 112:229, 1956.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    The reopening of Butler Hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry 113:1122–1123, 1957.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Blain D: Integration of psychiatry into general hospitals. Mental Hospitals 6 (6):4–7, 1955.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Dunn WH: Mental-health opportunities in the general hospital. Mental Hygiene 35:190–198, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Gayle RF: Some thoughts on psychiatric units in general hospitals. Mental Hospitals 7(2):5–8, 1956.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bennett AE: Problems establishing and maintaining psychiatric units in general hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 115:974–979, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hospital insurance discriminatory, say NAMH. Mental Hospitals 4 (6):6, 1953.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Malpractice insurance a grave problem. Mental Hospitals 4 (9):12, 1953.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Blain D, Potter H, Solomon H: Manpower studies with special reference to psychiatrists. American Journal of Psychiatry 116:791–797, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Care and Treatment. Mental Hygiene 41:589, 1957.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Squire MB: Open-staff policy opens the door to improved psychiatric therapy. Hospitals, J.A.H.A. 35 (Nov 1):64–67,1961.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Doctors in private practice relieve staff shortage. APA Mental Hospital Service Bulletin 1 (3):2, 1950.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    The Mental Health Programs of the Forty-Eight States. Chicago, The Council of State Governments, 1950.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Owen TV, Stemmerman MG: Can recovered mental patients be employed in the psychiatric hospital? Mental Hospitals 3 (10):10, 1952.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Aide training program. Mental Hospitals 3 (5):7, 1952.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Personal briefs. APA Mental Hospital Service Bulletin 2 (2):3, 1951.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hamilton DM: Successful restoration of schizophrenics following long-term intensive psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry 110:579–584, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Stierlin H: Techniques of psychotherapy in a small hospital. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 27:96–104, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Freeman W: Transorbital lobotomy. American Journal of Psychiatry 108:825–828, 1951.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Freeman W: Frontal lobotomy 1936–1956. A follow-up study of 3000 patients from one to twenty years. American Journal of Psychiatry 113:877–886, 1957.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Brannon EP, Graham WL: Intensive insulin shock therapy—A five-year survey. American Journal of Psychiatry 111:659–663, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    West FH, Bond ED, Shurley JJ, et al.: Insulin coma therapy in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 111:583–589, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gross F: Survey of the first two years of electric shock treatment in a large private hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry 109:32–34, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wolfe GE: Electric shock treatment. A “must” for chronic patients in mental hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 111:748–750, 1955.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ramsey GV: A short history of psychosurgery. American Journal of Psychiatry 108:813–816, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Whitehorn JC, Betz BJ: A comparison of psycho therapeutic relations between physicians and schizophrenic patients when insulin is combined with psychotherapy and when psychotherapy is used alone. American Journal of Psychiatry 113:901–910, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Erwin HJ: Clinical observations on the use of promethazine hydrochloride in psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 113:783–787, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Cohen S: TP-ZI, a new phenothiazine. American Journal of Psychiatry 115:358, 1958.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Azima H, Vispo RH: Imipramine: A potent new anti-depressant compound. American Journal of Psychiatry 115:245–246, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kuhn R: The treatment of depressive states with G22355 (imipramine hydrochloride). American Journal of Psychiatry 115:459–464, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Barton WE: Administration in Psychiatry. Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas, 1962.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Jones CH: Discussion. Mental Hospital 15:336, 1964.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bernard RI: The position of the private psychiatric hospital. Mental Hospital 15:19–22, 1964.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hillside Hospital. Mental Hospitals 12:20, 1961.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    New McLean Center dedicated at symposium. Mental Hospitals 15(1):53, 1964.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. American Journal of Psychiatry 121:1138, 1965.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Private hospital moves to larger quarters. Mental Hospitals 15:708, 1964.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Patients in Mental Institutions, 1966. Part III. Chevy Chase, MD, National Institute of Health, Public Health Service Publication No. 1818, 1968.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Krush TP: II. Mental health clinics and private practice. Mental Hospitals 13:95–98, 1962.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Neuman TW: The private hospital and the community. Mental Hospital 11(6):45, 1960.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    de Mareffe F, Prekup JT: The McLean Hospital Rehabilitation Center. Mental Hospitals 13:410–413, 1962.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wayne GJ: The special contribution of a hospital halfway house. Mental Hospitals 14:440–442, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gagliano TE, Forizs L: Intensive hospital treatment of severe psychiatric disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 18:74–82, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Myers JM, Wilbur CB, Saunders JR, et al: Report on five concurrent section meetings. Mental Hospitals 15:340–343, 1964.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Report of the Coordinating Committee on Professional Standards in Psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry 117:757–760, 1961.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Anster SL: Insurance coverage for “mental and nervous conditions”: Developments and problems. American Journal of Psychiatry 126:698–705, 1969.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Glasser MA: Prepayment for psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 121:736–741, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    UAW coverage extends to private hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 19(1):71, 1968.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Goldensohn SS, Fink R, Shapiro S: Referral, utilization, and staffing patterns of a mental health service in a pre-paid group practice program in New York. American Journal of Psychiatry 126:689–697, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    The effect of Medicare on the accreditation of psychiatric hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 17(4):18–19, 1966.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Blue Cross to study hospital costs. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 19(12):58, 1968.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Felix RH: Improving health insurance coverage for psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 121:731–735, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Hyde RW, Brennan MJ: Costs of alternatives to hospitalization. Mental Hygiene 44:197–205, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Gorman M: National Health Insurance: An idea whose time has come. American Journal of Psychiatry 126:708–711, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Davidson HA: The snake pits hiss back. A letter to the APA from a hospital superintendent. American Journal of Psychiatry 121:279–280, 1964.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Bartemeier LH: The future of psychiatry. The report of the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health. American Journal of Psychiatry 119:973–981, 1962.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Manderscheid RW, Atay JE, Hernandez-Cartagena MR, et al.: Highlights of organized mental health services in 1998 and major national and state trends, in Manderscheid RW, Henderson MJ (Eds): Center for Mental Health Services. Mental Health, United States, 2000. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 01–3537. Washington, DC: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 2001.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Ozarin LD, Redick RW, Taube CA: A quarter century of psychiatric care, 1950–1974: A statistical review. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 27:515–519, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    California announces plans to close state hospital. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 24:249, 1973.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Massachusetts study proposes phase-out of state mental hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 25:492–493, 1974.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Flamm GH: The expanding roles of general-hospital psychiatry. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 30:190–191, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Greenhill MH: Psychiatric units in general hospitals: 1979. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 30:169–182, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Characteristics and treatment of psychiatric inpatients at private hospitals reported. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 28:865, 869, 1977.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Gibson RW: Private psychiatric hospitals: “Excellence is their watchword.” American Journal of Psychiatry 135:17–21, 1978 supplement.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Stone AA: Reel Life: Girl Interrupted, Clinical Psychiatric News, August 2003, pp. 61–62.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Hirschowitz RG: Two psychiatric hospitals in transition: Studies in staff behavior. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 25:730–733, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Redick RW, Stroup A, Witkin MJ, et al.: Private psychiatric hospitals, United States: 1983–84 and 1986. Mental Health Statistical Note No. 191. DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 89–1588. Washington, DC: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1989.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Sharkey J: Bedlam. Greed, Profiteering, and Fraud in a Mental Health System Gone Crazy. New York, St. Martinapos;s, 1994.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Levenson AI: The growth of investor-owned psychiatric hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 139:902–907, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Dorwart RA, Schlesinger M: Privatization of psychiatric services. American Journal of Psychiatry 145:543–553, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Schlesinger M, Dorwart R: Ownership and mental-health services. New England Journal of Medicine 311:959–965, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Franz J: Hospitals turn from acquiring to building new psychiatric units. Modern Healthcare 14:124–130, May 15, 1984.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Johnson DEL: Survey plots 475 chains' growth. Modern Healthcare 14:65–84, May 15, 1984.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Eisenberg L: The case against for-profit hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 35:1009–1013, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Levenson AI: Challenges and opportunities for independent private psychiatric hospitals. Psychiatric Annals 14:350–356, 1984.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Rafferty FT: The case for investor-owned hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 35:1013–1016, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Levenson AI: Issues surrounding the ownership of private psychiatric hospitals by investor-owned hospital chains. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 34:1127–1131, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Private hospitals expected to earn $2.5 billion in 1985. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 37:302, 1986.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Justice Department sues to prevent merger of New Orleans hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 32:69, 1981.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Length of stay in private psychiatric hospitals falls in '88. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 40:764–765, 1989.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Private psychiatric hospitals step up marketing activities. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 38:794, 797, 1987.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sederer LI: Utilization review and quality assurance: staying in the black and working with the Blues. General Hospital Psychiatry 9:210–219, 1987.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Geller JL: Mental Health Services for the future: Managed care, unmanaged care, mismanaged care, in Schamess G, Lightburn A (Eds.). Humane Managed Care? Washington, DC, NASW, 1998.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    McCarrick AK, Rosenstein MJ, Milazzo-Syre LJ, et al.: National trends in use of psychotherapy in psychiatric inpatient settings. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 39:835–841, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals. 1990 Annual Survey. Final Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals, 1991.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals. 1991 Annual Survey: Final Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals, 1992.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems. 1992 Annual Survey: Final Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems, 1993.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems. 1993 Annual Survey: Final Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems, 1994.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Trends in Psychiatric Health Systems. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 1995 Annual Survey. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems, 1995.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Trends in Psychiatric Health Systems. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 1996 Annual Survey Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems, 1996.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Trends in Behavioral Healthcare Systems: A Benchmarking Report. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 1997 Annual Survey Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 1997.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Trends in Behavioral Healthcare Systems: A Benchmarking Report. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 1998 Annual Survey Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 1999.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Trends in Behavioral Healthcare Systems: A Benchmarking Report. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 2000 Annual Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 2000.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Trends in Behavioral Healthcare Systems: A Benchmarking Report. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 2001 Annual Survey Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 2002.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Trends in Behavioral Healthcare Systems: A Benchmarking Report. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 2002 Annual Report. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems 2003.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lutz S: Psych chains had another tough year. Modern Healthcare 25(21):64–65, 1995.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    NME to provide $2.5 million in free patient care as part of settlement agreement in Texas lawsuit. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43:852–853, 1992.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Lutz S: Psych chains endure another chaotic year. Modern Healthcare 24(21):64–65, 1994.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Tenet agrees to pay patients $100 million in malpractice claims. Psychiatric Services 48:1216–1217, 1997.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Sharfstein SS: Utilization management: Managed or mangled psychiatric care? American Journal of Psychiatry 147:965–966, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Schlesinger M, Dorwart RA, Epstein SS: Managed care constraints on psychiatrists' hospital practices: Bargaining power and professional autonomy. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:256–260, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Wickizer TM, Lessler D, Travis KM: Controlling inpatient psychiatric utilization through managed care. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:339–345, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    van Gelder, DW: Surviving in an era of managed care: Lessons from Colorado. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43:1145–1147, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Private psychiatric hospitals report wide dissatisfaction with managed care reviews. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41:938, 941, 1990.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Managed care survey finds improvements, but problems remain. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 42:964–965, 1991.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    NAPHS survey finds improved relations between providers and reviewers, but problems remain. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44:1200–1201, 1993.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Dorwart RA, Epstein SS: Privatization and Mental Health Care. A Fragile Balance. Westport, CT, Auburn House, 1993.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Dorwart RA, Schlesinger M, Davidson H, et al.: A national study of psychiatric hospital care. American Journal of Psychiatry 148:204–210, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Geller JL: Excluding institutions for mental diseases from federal reimbursement for services: Strategy or tragedy. Psychiatric Services 51:1397–1403, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Ross EC, Croze C: Mental health service delivery in the age of managed care, in Watkins TR, Callicutt JW (Eds). Mental Health Policy and Practice Today. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 1997.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Olfson M, Mechanic D: Mental disorders in public, private nonprofit and proprietary general hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:1613–1619, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Minkin EB, Stoline AM, Sharfstein SS: An analysis of the two-class system of care in public and private psychiatric hospitals. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45:975–977, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Muntaner C, Wolyniec P, McGrath J, et al.: Differences in social class among psychotic patients at inpatient admission. Psychiatric Services 46:176–178, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    White CL, Bateman A, Fisher WH, et al.: Factors associated with admission to public and private hospitals from a psychiatric emergency screening site. Psychiatric Services 46:467–472, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Geller JL: Any place but the state hospital. Examining assumptions about benefits of admission diversion. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 42:145–152, 1991.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Geller JL, Fisher WH, McDermeit M, et al.: The effects of public managed care on patterns of intensive use of inpatient psychiatric services. Psychiatric Services 49:327–332, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Storch DD: The two-class system (ltr to edit). Psychiatric Services 46:515, 1995.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Minkin EB, Stoline AM, Sharfstein SS: In Reply (Ltr to Edit). Psychiatric Services 46:515–516, 1995.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Munetz MR, Geller JL: Least restrictive alternative in the post-institutional era. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44:967–973, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Budson RD: Community residential and partial hospital care: Low cost alternative systems in the spectrum of care. Psychiatric Quarterly 65:209–220, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Davidson L, Tebes JK, Rakfeldt J, et al.: Differences in social environment between inpatient and day hospital-crisis respite settings. Psychiatric Services 47:714–720, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Hawthorne WB, Green EE, Lohr JB, et al.: Comparison of outcomes of acute care in short-term residential treatment and psychiatric hospital settings. Psychiatric Services 50:401–406, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Sledge WH, Tebes J, Rakfeldt J, et al.: Day hospital/crisis respite care versus inpatient care, Part I: Clinical outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:1065–1073, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Sledge WH, Tebes J, Wolff N, et al.: Day hospital/crisis respite care versus inpatient care, Part II: Service utilization and costs. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:1074–1083, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Hospital Statistics. 2003 Edition. Chicago, Health Forum, 2003.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Rosenau PV, Linder SH: A comparison of the performance of for-profit and nonprofit U.S. psychiatric inpatient care providers since 1980. Psychiatric Services 54:183–187, 2003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Horvitz-Lennon M, Normand SLT, Gaccione P, et al.: Partial versus full hospitalization for adults in psychiatric distress: A systematic review of the published literature 1957–1997. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:676–685, 2001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Donald A. The Wal-Marting of American psychiatry: An ethnography of psychiatric practice in the late 20th century. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 25:427–439, 2001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Challenges facing behavioral health care. Washington, DC, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems, 2003.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Appelbaum PS: The “quiet” crisis in mental health services. Health Affairs 22(5):110–116, 2003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Frank RG, Goldman HH, Hogan M: Medicaid and mental health: Be careful what you ask for. Health Affairs 22(1):101–113, 2003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Office of Inspector General. Review of Medicaid inpatient psychiatric claims for 21 to 64 year old residents of private psychiatric hospitals that are institutions for mental diseases in California during the period July 1, 1997 through January 31, 2001. Washington, DC, Department of Health and Human Services, 2002.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Office of Inspector General. Review of Medicaid claims for 21 to 64 year old residents of private psychiatric hospitals in Texas that are institutions for mental diseases. Washington, DC, Department of Health and Human Services, 2003.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Federal oversight of psychiatric hospitals needs to be strengthened, HHS watchdog concludes after review. Psychiatric Services 51:1063–1064, 2000.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Public-private collaboration explores options for enhanced performance measurement in behavioral healthcare organizations. http://www.naphs.org/News/PerformanceMeasurement101502.html.
  279. 279.
    Changing directions. Modern Healthcare 31(7):16, 2001.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Company news: Universal Health purchases 12 psychiatric hospitals. New York Times, section C, P.4, May 31, 2000.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Old neighborhood, new name in community services. http://www.bizmonthly.com/4_2003_focus/f_23.html.
  282. 282.
    Becker J, Hedgpeth D: Rockville hospital loses bid to survive. Washington Post, Metro Section, pp. B1+, April 18, 2001.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Romano M: Trouble in paradise? Modern Healthcare 31(19):24–25, 2001.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Mulligan K: Employers discover loopholes, keeping parity an elusive goal. Psychiatric News, October 17, 2003, p. 5.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Moran M: Psychiatric hospitals could gain right to Medicaid reimbursement. Psychiatric News, October 17, 2003, p. 9.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Lehmann C: State hospital to lose beds in major funding shift. Psychiatric News, October 17, 2003, p. 16.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Barry E: Mental breakdown. Embracing change, Vermont neglected its state hospital. Boston.com/News/Local/Vt./Mental breakdown, October 20, 2003.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Findlay S: For many in U.S., good health care barely exists. USA Today, October 1, 2003.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Abelson R: Generous Medicare payments spur specialty hospital boom. New York Times, October 26, 2003.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Rosenbaum D: Do some pay too little for health care? New York Times, October 26, 2003.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Human Rights Watch: Ill-equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness. New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Satel S: Out of the asylum, into the cell. New York Times, November 1, 2003.Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    United States: Mentally ill mistreated in prison. More mentally ill in prison than in hospitals. http://www.hrw.org/press/2003/10/us102203.htm.
  294. 294.
    National Mental Health Association: Canapos;t Make the Grade. NMHA State Mental Health Assessment Project. Alexandria, VA, National Mental Health Association, 2003.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Green SA, Bloch S: Working in a flawed mental health care system: An ethical challenge. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:1378–1383, 2001.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    White WA: Presidential address. American Journal of Psychiatry 82:1–20, 1925.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Hartmann L: Presidential address: reflections on humane values and biopsychosocial integration. American Journal of Psychiatry149:1135–1141, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUMass Medical SchoolWorcester
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcester

Personalised recommendations