Advertisement

Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 283–296 | Cite as

Review of Benzodiazepine use in Children and Adolescents

  • Malgorzata W. WitekEmail author
  • Veronica Rojas
  • Carmen Alonso
  • Haruka Minami
  • Raul R. Silva
Article

Abstract

Clinically, benzodiazepines are used in adult populations much more frequently than in children and adolescents. There may be a number of reasons for this disparity including a dearth of well controlled clinical studies and the issue of dependence associated with long term use. However, over a ten year span there has been nearly a three fold increase in the use patterns for these agents in the child population. In open studies much of the literature has indicated potentially useful results, but these findings have not been replicated when more refined methodological studies have been conducted. The lack of encouraging results in these later studies may be attributable to a number of factors such as modest sample sizes and less than optimal patient selection. Nonetheless, with increasing prescriptions being written for these agents it is not clear what is compelling clinicians to use them. In this paper we will review the available literature on benzodiazepine use in the child and adolescent population, focusing primarily on psychiatric applications.

Key words

benzodiazepines anxiety aggression childhood psychopathology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Pelissolo A, Boyer P, Lepine JP, et al: Epidemiology of the use of anxiolytics and hypnotic drugs in France and in the world. Encephale 22(3):187–196, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Howes JB, Ryan J, Fairbrother G, et al: Benzodiazepine prescribing in a Sydney bteaching hospital. Medical journal of Australia 165(6):305–308, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zito JM. Safer DJ. DosReis S, et al: Psychotropic practice patterns for youth: A 10-year perspective. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 157:17–25, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Simeon JG, Ferguson HB: Recent developments in the use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medications. Psychiatr Clin North Am 8:893–907, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salzman C: Benzodiazepine dependency: Summary of the APA task force on benzodiazepines Psychopharmacol Bull 26:61–62, 1990.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Janicak PG (ed): Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy, 3rd ed. PhiladelphiaLippincott Williams and Wilkins 471–474, 2001.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI: Benzodiazepines in clinical practice. New York, Raven Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coffey BJ: Anxiolytics for children and adolescents: Traditional and new drugs. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:57–86, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campbell M, Green WH, Deutsch SI: Child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, vol 10, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chebib M, Johnston GA: The ABC of GABA receptors: A brief review: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 26:937–940, 1999.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Low K, Crestani F, Keist R, et al: Molecular and neuronal substrate for the selective attenuation of anxiety Science 290:131–138, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Polk P: Electrophysiology of benzodiazepine receptor ligands: Multiple mechanisms and sites of action. Prog Neurobiol 31:349–423, 1988.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hobbs WR, Rall TW, Verdoorn TA: Goodman and Gillman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed. Edited by Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG. New York, McGraw-Hill, 361–396, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Graae F, Milner J, Rizzotto L: Clonazepam in childhood anxiety disorders. J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:372–376, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biederman J: Clonazepam in the treatment of prepubertal children with panic like symptoms. J. Clin. Psychiatry 48(Supplement):38–41, 1987.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D’Amato G: Chlordiazepoxide in Management of school phobia. Dis Nerv Sys 23:292–295, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Green WH: Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychopharmacology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, 2001.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simeon JG, Ferguson HB: Alprazolam effects in children with anxiety disorders. Can J Psychiatry 32:570–574, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pfefferbaum G, Overall JE, Boren HA, et al: Treatment of anticipatory and acute situational anxiety in children with cancer. J Am Acad Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 26:532–535, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klein RG, Last CG: Anxiety disorders in children. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simeon JG, Ferguson HB. Knott V, et al: Clinical, cognitive, and neurophysiological effects of alprazolam in children and adolescents with overanxious and avoidant disorder. J Am Acad Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 31:29–33, 1992.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bernstein GA, Garfinkel BD, Borchardt CM: Comparative studies of pharmacotherapy for school refusal. J. Am. Acad Child Adolescent Psychiatry 29:773–781, 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    PDR Physicians Desk Reference, 58th ed. Montvale, New Jersey, Thompson, 2004.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kraft IA, Adrall C, Duffy JH, Hart JT, et al: Pearce P. A clinical study of chlordiazepoxide used in psychiatric disorders in children. Int J of Neuropsychiatry 1: 433–437, 1965.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kutcher SP, MacKenzie S: Successful clonazepam treatment of adolescents with panic disorder. J. Clin Psychopharmacologic 8:299–301, 1988.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Johns MW: Sleep and hypnotic drugs, Drugs 9(6):448–478, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oswald I: The mechanism of sleep disorders: some recent advances. Journal of Neurology 5:187–194, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Popoviciu L, Corfariu O: Efficacy and safety of midazolam in the treatment of night terrors in children. Brit. J of clin Pharmacol 16(Suppl 1):97S–102S, 1983.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Garza-Trevino et al: Efficacy of combinations of IM antipsychotic and sedative-hypnotics for control of psychotic agitation. Am J. Psychiatry, 146:1598–1601, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bieniek SA, Ownby RL, Penalver A, et al: A double blind study of lorazepam versus the combination of haloperidol and lorazepam in managing agitation. Pharmacotherapy 18:57–62, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barnett S, Riddle M: Anxiolytics, benzodiazepines, buspirone and others, in Pediatric Psychopharmacology. Principles and Practice, Edited by Martin A, Scahill L, Charney D, Leckman JF. New York, Oxford University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gleser GD, Gottschack LA, Fox R, et al: Immediate changes in affect with chlordiazepoxide. Arch Gen Psychiatry 13:291–295, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bond WS, Mandos LA, Kurtz MB: Midazolam for aggressivity and violence in three mentally retarded patients. AMJ Psychiatry 146:925–926, 1989.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Petti TA, Fish B, Shapiro T, et al: Effects of chlordiazepoxide in disturbed children: A pilot study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2:270–273, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Campbell M, Gonzalez NM, Silva RR: The pharmacologic treatment of conduct disorders and rage outbursts. Psych Clinics of N Am 15(1):69–85, 1992.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sorrentino A: Chemical restraints for the agitated, violent, or psychotic pediatric patient in the emergency department: Controversies and recommendations. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 16(2):201–205, 2004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tamara M, Rein TP: Anaesthetic premedications: Aims, assessment and methods. Can J Anaesth 34(3):259–273, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martinez-Aguirre E, Sansano C: Comparison of midazolam and diazepam as complement of ketamine-air anesthesia in children. Acta Anaesth Belgica 37(1):15–21, 1986.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vininng EPG: Use of barbiturates and Benzodiazepines in Treatment of Epilepsy. Neurologic Clinics 4 (3):617–631, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chien C, Keegan D: Diazepam as an oral long-term anticonvulsant for epileptic mental patients. Dis Nerv Syst 33:100–104, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hanhan UA, Fiallos MR, Orlowski JP: Status epilepticus. Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(3):683–692, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mahmoudian T, Mohammadi Zadeh M: Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating acute seizures in children. Epilepsy and Behavior 5:253–255, 2004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malgorzata W. Witek
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Veronica Rojas
    • 1
  • Carmen Alonso
    • 1
  • Haruka Minami
    • 1
  • Raul R. Silva
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryNew York University School of MedicineNew York
  2. 2.NYU School of Medicine, Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryNew York

Personalised recommendations