Advertisement

PROSPECTS

pp 1–16 | Cite as

Deliberative democratic decision making, universal values, and cultural pluralism: A proposed contribution to the prevention of violent extremism through education

  • Felisa L. TibbittsEmail author
Open File

Abstract

Fostering cohesion and acceptance amidst a plurality of cultures and values is a clear context for quality education and also for PVE. This article proposes that deliberative democratic decision making (DDD) can result in agreements on (quasi-universal) values that accommodate both the claims of universal values – including human rights – and cultural pluralism and particularism. The article suggests that any agreed upon values framework itself becomes generative of curriculum and teaching and learning processes that will foster quality education, with conditions that also contribute to the prevention of violent extremism. An explicit treatment of values across the whole school as a subject of inquiry and agreement by all members of the school community can contribute to a healthy school environment and praxis for learners that serve the aims of PVE. Following an exploration of these arguments, the article presents concrete strategies for critical values clarification within the schooling system that recognize how universality and pluralism co-exist.

Keywords

Values education Deliberative democracy Preventing violent extremism Human rights 

Notes

References

  1. Adami, R. (2014). Re-thinking relations in human rights education: The politics of narrative. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 48(2), 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baehr, P. R. (2000). Human rights and international relations. In D. Forsythe (Ed.), Human rights in international relations (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Benhabib, S. (2007). Democratic exclusions and democratic iterations: Dilemmas of ‘just membership’ and prospects of cosmopolitan federalism. European Journal of Political Theory, 6(4), 445–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blatt, N., & Kohlberg, L. (1975). The effects of classroom moral discussions upon children’s level of moral judgment. Journal of Moral Education, 4, 129–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cairns, J., Lawton, D., & Gardner, R. (Eds.) (2001). World yearbook of education 2001: Values, culture and education. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  6. Carr, D., & Landon, J. (1993). Values in and for education at 14+. Edinburgh: Moray House, Institute of Education, Heriot Watt University.Google Scholar
  7. Constantinides, A. (2008). Questioning the universal relevance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Cuadernos Constitutionales de la Cátedra Fadrique Furió Cerio, 62–63, 49–63.Google Scholar
  8. Enslin, P., & Tjiattas, M. (2009). Philosophy of education and the gigantic affront to universalism. Journal of the Philosophy of Education Society, 43(1), 2–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fraser, N. (2005). Reforming justice in a globalizing world. New Left Review, 36, 55–72.Google Scholar
  10. Halstead, J. N. (1996). Introduction. In J. M. Halstead & M. J. Taylor (Eds.), Values in education and education in values (pp. 11–22). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  11. Halstead, J. M., & Taylor, M. J. (Eds.) (1996). Values in education and education in values. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kinnier, R. T., Kernes, J. L., & Dautheribes, T. M. (2000). A short list of universal moral values. Counseling and Values, 45(1), 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues (pp. 31–53). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson.Google Scholar
  14. Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development: Vol.II. The psychology of moral development: The nature and validity of moral stages. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, W. O. (2001). Moral perspectives on values, culture and education. In J. Cairns, D. Lawton, & R. Gardner (Eds.), World yearbook of education 2001: Values, culture and education (pp. 27–45). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  16. Nussbaum, M. (1999). In defense of universal values. In Occasional paper series: Women and human development. The fifth annual Hesburgh lectures on ethics and public policy.Google Scholar
  17. Nussbaum, M. (2002). Patriotism and cosmopolitanism. In G. W. Brown & D. Held (Eds.), The cosmopolitanism reader (pp. 3–17). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Parliament of the World’s Religions (1993). Declaration toward a global ethic. Chicago, IL: Council for a Parliament of the World’s Religions.Google Scholar
  19. Power, F. C., Higgins, A., & Kohlberg, L. (1989). Lawrence Kolhberg’s approach to moral education. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Segal, M. H., Lonner, W. J., & Berry, J. W. (1998). Cross-cultural psychology as a scholarly discipline: On the flowering of culture in behavioral research. American Psychologist, 53(10), 1101–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thomas, E. (2000). Researching values in cross-cultural contexts. In R. Gardner, J. Cairns, & D. Lawton (Eds.), Education for values: Morals, ethics and citizenship in contemporary teaching (pp. 257–272). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Tibbitts, F. (2018). Contested universalism and human rights education: Can there be a deliberative hybrid solution for schooling? In M. Zembylas & A. Keet (Eds.), Entanglements and regenerations: Critical human rights, citizenship and democracy education. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  24. UNESCO (2015). UNESCO’s role in promoting education as a tool to prevent violent extremism, Executive Board 197 EX/46. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  25. UNESCO (2016). A teacher’s guide on the prevention of violent extremism. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  26. UNESCO (2017). Preventing violent extremism through education: A guide for policy-makers. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  27. UNICEF/UNESCO (2007). A human rights-based approach to education. New York, NY: UNICEF and UNESCO.Google Scholar
  28. United Nations (2000). United Nations millennium declaration. New York, NY: United Nations.Google Scholar
  29. United Nations (2014). Security Council resolution 2178. New York, NY: United Nations.Google Scholar
  30. United Nations (2015). Security Council resolution 2250. New York, NY: United Nations.Google Scholar
  31. Warnock, M. (1996). Moral values. In J. M. Halstead & M. J. Taylor (Eds.), Values in education and education in values (pp. 45–53). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  32. Woodhead, L., & Heelas, P. (2000). Religion in modern times. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© UNESCO IBE 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations