Resourcing inclusion: Introducing finance perspectives to inclusive education policy rhetoric
- 25 Downloads
Across the Central Eastern European region, inclusive education has become a policy aim. Europeanization, influence of United Nations agencies, and shifts away from Soviet models of education have led to new policy aspirations for the inclusion of children with special education needs (SEN). At the same time, policies in many countries often lack the infrastructure or internal mechanisms required for successful implementation (such as funding, professional capacity, and public will). In this article, we examine one of these challenges: funding. Through simulations based on data collected by the authors in the Republic of Serbia, we examine approaches for funding children with SEN in inclusive classrooms without losing the supports provided to them in segregated settings. Our findings illustrate the possible approaches to adequate costing of inclusive education policies and potentially serve as a methodological reference beyond specific national contexts. They are, therefore, potentially applicable across Eastern European countries.
KeywordsEducational policy Education financing Inclusive education Europe Serbia
- Ainscow, M., & Miles, S. (2009). Developing inclusive education systems: How can we move policies forward?. Manchester: University of Manchester.Google Scholar
- Elster, J. (1992). Local justice: How institutions allocate scarce goods and necessary burdens. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education (2016). Financing of inclusive education: Background information report. Odense: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/Financing%20of%20Inclusive%20Education%20-%20Background%20Information%20Report.pdf.
- Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Government of the Republic of Serbia (2014). Second national report on social inclusion and poverty reduction in the Republic of Serbia. Belgrade: Author.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, A. D., & Nielsen, A. H. (2015). The role of education in building soft skills: Putting into perspectives the priorities and opportunities for teaching collaboration and other soft skills in education. Duxbury, MA: Wainhouse Research.Google Scholar
- Jonsson, U. (2003). Human rights approach to development programming. Nairobi: UNICEF.Google Scholar
- Ladd, H. (2008). Reflections on equity, adequacy, and weighted student funding. Journal of Education, Finance, and Policy, 3, 401–423.Google Scholar
- MESTD [Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development (Serbia)] (2012). Monitoring of implementation of inclusive approach to the education system in Serbia. Belgrade: Government of Serbia.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, D. (2009). Education for respect and understanding – inclusion and equity. Cambridge, UK: Commonwealth Education Partnerships. http://www.cedol.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/55-57-20091.pdf.
- NARS [National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia] (2009). Law on the fundamentals of the education system. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 72/2009 (in Serbian).Google Scholar
- Nikolić, G., Lukić, E., & Janković, S. (2010). Pupils with developmental disabilities and difficulties in educational institutions in the Republic of Serbia. Belgrade: Institute for the Improvement of Education.Google Scholar
- Nikolić, G., & Popović, Z. (2013). Ispitivanje akademskih postignuća učenika u školama za obrazovanje učenika sa smetnjama u razvoju [Examining educational achievement of students with disabilities in schools]. Nastava I vaspitanji, 1, 25–39.Google Scholar
- Peters, S. (2003). Inclusive education: Achieving education for all by including those with disabilities and special education needs. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/614161468325299263/Inclusive-education-achieving-education-for-all-by-including-those-with-disabilities-and-special-education-needs.
- Pijl, S. J. (2014). Funding. In L. Florian (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of special education (pp. 251–261). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Republic of Serbia (2009). Report on implementation of Millennium Development Goals. Belgrade: Author.Google Scholar
- Robson, C. (2005). Students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages: Statistics and indicators (Vol. 2005, No. 17). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Robertson, S., & Robertson, S. L. (2007). Globalisation, education and development: Ideas, actors and dynamics (Vol. 2). London: Division for International Development.Google Scholar
- Smagorinsky, P. (2012). Vygotsky. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 8(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and UNICEF (2014). Serbia multiple indicator cluster survey and Serbia Roma settlements multiple indicator cluster survey, 2014: Final reports. Belgrade: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and UNICEF.Google Scholar
- UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education: Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality. Salamanca, Spain, 7–10 June 1994. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- UNESCO (2009). Policy guidelines on inclusion in education. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001778/177849e.pdf.
- United Nations (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. New York, NY: UN. https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html.
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1993). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky (Vol. 2): The fundamentals of defectology (abnormal psychology and learning disabilities), edited by R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton. New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Ysseldyke, J. E. (1987). Classification of handicapped students. In M. C. Wang, M. C. Reynolds, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Handbook of special education: Research and practice (pp. 253–271). New York, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar