, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 259–273 | Cite as

Vocational training in India and the duality principle: A case for evidence-based reform

  • Santosh MehrotraEmail author
  • A. Kalaiyarasan
  • Neha Kumra
  • K. Ravi Raman


This article explores the notion of the duality principle, as embodied in the German dual system of Vocational Education and Training (VET), within the context of a field survey of skill shortages faced by German and Indian firms operating in India. The study finds that these firms experience problems with the quantity and quality of skills supplied and, in response to these problems, use some form of in-house training for new recruits and employees. Firms also express a willingness to cooperate in skill-development programmes and in joint funding with government. The article makes a strong case for adapting some of the critical elements of the German dual system to render Indian VET more responsive to the labour market and provide a formally structured and integrated system of skill development.


Duality principle Vocational education and training Skill shortages India Germany 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Santosh Mehrotra
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Kalaiyarasan
    • 2
  • Neha Kumra
    • 3
  • K. Ravi Raman
    • 4
  1. 1.Jawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Institute for Studies in Industrial DevelopmentNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.National Institute of Labour Economics Research and Development, NITI AayogGovernment of IndiaNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Council for Social DevelopmentNew DelhiIndia

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