Vocational training in India and the duality principle: A case for evidence-based reform
- 433 Downloads
This article explores the notion of the duality principle, as embodied in the German dual system of Vocational Education and Training (VET), within the context of a field survey of skill shortages faced by German and Indian firms operating in India. The study finds that these firms experience problems with the quantity and quality of skills supplied and, in response to these problems, use some form of in-house training for new recruits and employees. Firms also express a willingness to cooperate in skill-development programmes and in joint funding with government. The article makes a strong case for adapting some of the critical elements of the German dual system to render Indian VET more responsive to the labour market and provide a formally structured and integrated system of skill development.
KeywordsDuality principle Vocational education and training Skill shortages India Germany
- Adams, A. V. (2011). The role of skills development in overcoming social disadvantage. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012, Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Euler, D. (2013). Germany’s dual vocational training system: A model for other countries? A study commissioned by Bertelsmann Stiftung. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
- Goel V. P. (2013). Technical and vocational education and training system in India for sustainable development. http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/up/India_Country_Paper.pdf. Bonn: UNEVOC.
- Jamal, T., & Mandal, K. (2013). Skill development mission in vocational areas: Mapping government initiatives. Current Science, 104(5), 590–595.Google Scholar
- Lee, J. W., & Mehrotra, S. (2015). Human capital development in South Asia: Achievements, prospects and policy challenges. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
- Mehrotra, S. (2009). The international market for public policy learning in skills development: The special case of India. Paper prepared for the NORRAG Conference on Policy Transfer or Policy Learning: Interactions between International and National Skills Development Approaches for Policy Making. http://www.norrag.org/fileadmin/Other_publications/Mehrotra.pdf
- Mehrotra, S. (Ed.) (2014b). India’s skill challenge: Reforming vocational education and training to harness the demographic dividend. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Mehrotra, S., & Ghosh, D. (2014). International experience with national training funds: Lessons for India. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(26–27), 77–85.Google Scholar
- Mehrotra, S., & Kumra, N. (2014). Commencing reform in India’s vocational education and training system. In S. Mehrotra (Ed.), India’s skills challenge: Reforming vocational education and training to realize the demographic dividend (pp. 269–280). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Mehrotra, S., Devi, K., & Gandhi, A. (2015). Understanding skill development and training in China: Lessons for India (Vol. 50). Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
- Mehrotra, S., Gandhi, A., & Sahoo, B. K. (2013). Estimating India’s skill gap on a realistic basis for 2022. Economic and Political Weekly, 48(13), 102–111.Google Scholar
- Mehrotra, S., Mehrotra, V., & Banerji, B. (2012a). A national vocational education qualification framework for India. IAMR occasional paper. www.iamrindia.gov.in.
- Mehrotra, S., Gandhi, A., Sahoo, B., & Saha, P. (2012b). Organised and unorganised employment in the non-agricultural sectors in the 2000s. IAMR occasional paper no. 6/2012. New Delhi: IAMR. www.iamrindia.gov.in.
- Mehrotra, S., Jajati, P., Sharmistha, S., & Gandhi, A. (2014). Explaining employment trends in the Indian economy: 1993–94 to 2011–12. Economic & Political Weekly, 49(32), 49–57.Google Scholar
- MHRD [Ministry of Human Resource Development] (2011). 12th five-year plan 2012–2017. Working group report on secondary and vocational education, Department of School Education and Literacy, Government of India. New Delhi: MHRD.Google Scholar
- Planning Commission, Government of India (2008). Eleventh five-year plan, Vol. 1: Inclusive growth. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Planning Commission, Government of India (2013). Twelfth five-year plan. New Delhi: SAGE.Google Scholar
- Prasad, M. R., Sharma, M., Agrawal, R., Joshi, S., Saha, S. S. K., & Gandhi, A. (2010). The challenges facing skill development in India: An issues paper. Prepared for IAMR [Institute of Applied Manpower Research], New Delhi: Planning Commission, Government of India. www.iamrindia.gov.in.
- Raman, K. R. (2010). Strange bedfellows? Critiquing corporate social responsibility. In K. R. Raman & R. D. Lipschutz (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility: Comparative critiques (pp. 1–24). Basingstoke, UK, and New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Schnarr, A., Sun, Y., & GleiBner, K. (2008). Vocational education and training and the labour market: A comparative analysis of China and Germany. Bonn: UNEVOC.Google Scholar
- Schneider, U. H., Hensen, K. A., & Schober, K. (2011). Germany: VET in Europe–Country report. Thessaloniki: Cedefop [European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training].Google Scholar
- Thode, E. (2006). Benchmarking Deutschland: der Arbeitsmarkt im Spiegel der OECD-Länder. In S. Empter & R. B. Vehrkamp (Eds.), Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
- Tremblay, D.-G., & Le Bot, I. (2003). The German dual apprenticeship system: Analysis of its evolution and present challenges. Canada Research Chair on Socio-organizational Challenges of the Knowledge Economy, Téluq-Université du Québec.Google Scholar
- UIL [UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning] (2013). Country case: India. UIL’s contribution to the global inventory of national qualifications frameworks. Hamburg: UIL. http://uil.unesco.org/fileadmin/keydocuments/LifelongLearning/en/UIL_Global_Inventory_of_NQFs_India.pdf.
- World Bank (2007). Skill development in India: The vocational education and training system. Washington, DC: World Bank, Human Development Unit, South Asia Region.Google Scholar
- World Bank (2014). Enterprise survey data. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/data/exploreeconomies/2014/india#workforce.