Journal of Productivity Analysis

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 201–210 | Cite as

Far out or alone in the crowd: a taxonomy of peers in DEA

  • Dag Fjeld Edvardsen
  • Finn R. Førsund
  • Sverre A. C. Kittelsen


A method is presented for classifying strongly efficient units in DEA as interior or exterior, and as self-evaluators or active peers. The exterior strongly efficient units are found by running the enveloping procedure “from below”. There is no firm production-function evidence of the efficiency of exterior self-evaluators. Interior self-evaluators are more likely to have active peers as neighbours in more directions and may therefore represent technology. When performing a second stage regression analysis of efficiency scores, exterior self-evaluators should be removed. The proportion of exterior active peers also provides information on whether the variable specification is supported by the data.


Interior and exterior peer Active peer and self-evaluator DEA Referencing zone Nursing homes 

JEL Classifications

C44 C61 D24 I19 L32 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dag Fjeld Edvardsen
    • 1
  • Finn R. Førsund
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sverre A. C. Kittelsen
    • 3
  1. 1.SINTEF Building and InfrastructureOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.The Frisch CentreOsloNorway

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