Comparative Effectiveness of Brief Alcohol Interventions for College Students: Results from a Network Meta-Analysis
Late adolescence is a time of increased drinking, and alcohol plays a predominant role in college social experiences. Colleges seeking to prevent students’ hazardous drinking may elect to implement brief alcohol interventions (BAIs). However, numerous manualized BAIs exist, so an important question remains regarding the comparative effectiveness of these different types of BAIs for college students. This study uses network meta-analyses (NMA) to compare seven manualized BAIs for reducing problematic alcohol use among college students. We systematically searched multiple sources for literature, and we screened studies and extracted data in duplicate. For the quantitative synthesis, we employed a random-effects frequentist NMA to determine the effectiveness of different BAIs compared to controls and estimated the relative effectiveness ranking of each BAI. A systematic literature search resulted in 52 included studies: On average, 58% of participants were male, 75% were binge drinkers, and 20% were fraternity/sorority-affiliated students. Consistency models demonstrated that BASICS was consistently effective in reducing students’ problematic alcohol use (ES range: g = − 0.23, 95%CI [− 0.36, − 0.16] to g = − 0.36, 95% CI [− 0.55, − 0.18]), but AlcoholEDU (g = − 0.13, 95%CI [− 0.22, − 0.04]), e-CHUG (g = − 0.35, 95%CI [− 0.45, − 0.05]), and THRIVE (g = − 0.47, 95%CI [− 0.60, − 0.33]) were also effective for some outcomes. Intervention rankings indicated that BASICS, THRIVE, and AlcoholEDU hold the most promise for future trials. Several BAIs appear effective for college students. BASICS was the most effective but is resource intensive and may be better suited for higher risk students; THRIVE and e-CHUG are less resource intensive and show promise for universal prevention efforts.
KeywordsBrief alcohol intervention College students Network meta-analysis
Funding for the original review was provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Grant 1R01AA020286-01A1 (2011–2015).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
S.G.’s spouse is a salaried-employee of Eli Lilly and Company, and owns stock. S.G. has accompanied his spouse on company-sponsored travel. All other authors declare no known conflicts of interest.
Ethical Approval/Informed Consent
Ethical approval or informed consent is not applicable, as this is a systematic review.
- Alfonso, J., & Deschenes, S. D. (2013). Do drinking games matter? An examination by game type and gender in a mandated student sample. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 39(5), 312–319. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2013.770519.
- Cipriani, A., Higgins, J. P., Geddes, J. R., & Salanti, G. (2013). Conceptual and technical challenges in network meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(2), 130–137.Google Scholar
- Dimeff, L. A., Baer, J. S., Kivlahan, D. R., & Marlatt, G. A. (Ed.). (1999). Brief alcohol screening and intervention for college students (BASICS): A harm reduction approach. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hingson, R., & White, A. (2014). New research findings since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A review. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75(1), 158–169.Google Scholar
- Huh, D., Mun, E. Y., Larimer, M. E., White, H. R., Ray, A. E., Rhew, I. C., et al. (2015). Brief motivational interventions for college student drinking may not be as powerful as we think: An individual participant-level data meta-analysis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 39, 919–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hutton, B., Salanti, G., Caldwell, D. M., Chaimani, A., Schmid, C. H., Cameron, C., ... & Mulrow, C. (2015). The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions: Checklist and explanations. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(11), 777–784.Google Scholar
- Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Petropoulou, M., Nikolakopoulou, A., Veroniki, A. A., Rios, P., Vafaei, A., Zarin, W., ... & Egger, M. (2017). Bibliographic study showed improving statistical methodology of network meta-analyses published between 1999 and 2015. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 82, 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.11.002
- SAMHSA (2016a). 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). In Table 6.80B—Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2015 and 2016. Available at: https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016.htm#tab6-80B. Accessed 23 Jan 2018.
- SAMHSA (2016b). 2016 National Survey on drug use and health (NSDUH). In Table 6.79B. Available at: https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016.htm#tab6-79B. Accessed 23 Jan 2018.
- SAMHSA (2018). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 18-5068, NSDUH Series H-53). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from: https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
- Sánchez-Meca, J., Marín-Martínez, F., & Chacón-Moscoso, S. (2003). Effect-size indices for dichotomized outcomes in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 8(4), 448.Google Scholar
- Schulenberg, J. E., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Meich, R. A., & Patrick, M. E. (2017). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2016: Volume 2, college students and adults ages 19–55. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
- StataCorp. (2015). Stata statistical software: Release 14. College Station: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- Steinka-Fry, K. T., Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Grant, S. (2015). Effects of 21st birthday brief interventions on college student celebratory drinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 13–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- The Century Council (1997). Alcohol 101. Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- The Century Council (2003). Alcohol 101 Plus [Computer Software] 2003. Retrieved from http://www.alcohol101plus.org/home.html. Accessed 23 Jan 2018.
- Voloshyna, D. M., Bonar, E. E., Cunningham, R. M., Ilgen, M. A., Blow, F. C., & Walton, M. A. (2016). Blackouts among male and female youth seeking emergency department care. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1–11.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, H., Davenport, A., Dowdall, G., Moeykens, B., & Castillo, S. (1994). Health and behavioral consequences of binge drinking in college: A National Survey of students at 140 campuses. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1672–1677. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520210056032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- White, I. R., Barrett, J. K., Jackson, D., & Higgins, J. P. (2012). Consistency and inconsistency in network meta‐analysis: model estimation using multivariate meta‐regression. Research Synthesis Methods, 3(2), 111–125.Google Scholar
Further Reading (References of studies included in the review)
- Alfonso, J., Hall, T. V., & Dunn, M. E. (2012). Feedback-based alcohol interventions for mandated students: An effectiveness study of three modalities. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1786.
- Baer, J. S., Kivlahan, D. R., Blume, A. W., McKnight, P., & Marlatt, G. A. (2001). Brief intervention for heavy-drinking college students: 4-year follow-up and natural history. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1310–1316. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.91.8.1310.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bowley, C., Faricy, C., Hegarty, B., Johnstone, S. J., Smith, J. L., Kelly, P. J., & Rushby, J. A. (2013). The effects of inhibitory control training on alcohol consumption, implicit-alcohol related cognitions and brain electrical activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89, 342–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.04.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Braitman, A. L. (2012). The effects of personalized boosters for a computerized intervention targeting college student drinking. (Doctoral dissertation, Old Dominion University).Google Scholar
- Bryant, Z. (2009). Testing the effectiveness of e-mailed BASICS feedback with college students (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D., 198. (University Microfilms No. 3386183).Google Scholar
- Butler, L. H. (2007). Brief alcohol intervention with college students using BASICS: Face-to-face versus computerized feedback (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University). Dissertation Abstracts International, M.S., 83.Google Scholar
- Carey, K. B., Carey, M. P., Henson, J. M., Maisto, S. A., & DeMartini, K. S. (2011). Brief alcohol interventions for mandated college students: Comparison of face-to-face counseling and computer-delivered interventions. Addiction, 106, 528–537. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03193.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Croom, K., Lewis, D., Marchell, T., Lesser, M. L., Reyna, V. F., Kubicki-Bedford, L., Feffer, M., & Staiano-Coico, L. (2009). Impact of an online alcohol education course on behavior and harm for incoming first-year college students: Short-term evaluation of a randomized trial. Journal of American College Health, 57, 445–454. https://doi.org/10.3200/jach.57.4.445-454.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dimeff, L. A. (1997). Brief intervention for heavy and hazardous college drinkers in a student primary health care setting (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(58, 12-B), 96. (University Microfilms No. 9819231).Google Scholar
- Doumas, D. M., & Andersen, L. L. (2009). Reducing alcohol use in first-year university students: Evaluation of a web-based personalized feedback program. Journal of College Counseling, 12, 18–32. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2009.tb00037.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Doumas, D. M., Kane, C. M., Navarro, B., & Roman, J. (2011). Decreasing heavy drinking in first-year students: Evaluation of a web-based personalized feedback program administered during orientation. Journal of College Counseling, 14, 5–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2011.tb00060.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Doumas, D. M., Nelson, K., DeYoung, A., & Renteria, C. C. (2014). Alcohol-related consequences among first-year university students: Effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program. Journal of College Counseling, 17, 150–162. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2014.00054.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eggleston, A. M. (2007). Components analysis of a brief intervention for college drinkers (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(68, 08), 133. (University Microfilms No. 3276684).Google Scholar
- Geisner, I. (2008). A randomized clinical trial of a brief, mailed intervention for depressed mood in a college student sample (doctoral dissertation, University of Washington). Dissertation abstracts international, Ph.D., 139. (University Microfilms No. 3328400).Google Scholar
- Grossbard, J. R., Mastroleo, N. R., Kilmer, J. R., Lee, C. M., Turrisi, R., Larimer, M. E., & Ray, A. (2010). Substance use patterns among first-year college students: Secondary effects of a combined alcohol intervention. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 39, 384–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2010.07.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Henslee, A. (2008). Providing personalized feedback regarding alcohol use in a group format to college freshmen (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(69, 10), 97. (University Microfilms No. 3333129).Google Scholar
- Henslee, A. M., & Correia, C. J. (2009). The use of freshmen seminar programs to deliver personalized feedback. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 53, 39–52.Google Scholar
- Hester, R. K., Delaney, H. D., & Campbell, W. (2012). The college drinker’s check-up: Outcomes of two randomized clinical trials of a computer-delivered intervention (STUDY ID 3099 IS FOR EXPERIMENT 2). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Horner, K. (2010). Brief motivational interviewing: An intervention for alcohol abusing college students (doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Albany). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(71, 05), 146. (University Microfilms No. 3402364).Google Scholar
- Juarez, P. (2001). A randomized trial of motivational interviewing and feedback on heavy drinking college students (Doctoral dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico). Dissertation Abstracts International, M.S., 147.Google Scholar
- Kerr-Corrêa, F., Simão, M.O., Sumaia, S.I., Trinca, L.A., Floripes, T.M.F., Dalben, I., Martins, R.A., Oliveira, J.B., Cavariani, M.B., & Tucchi, A.M. (2008). Prevention of risk drinking among university students in a Brazilian university: A clinical trial with a two year follow-up. In Paper presented at the meeting of the 5th international conference of Inebria Alcohol & Drug Problems in developing countries, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Kulesza, M., McVay, M. A., Larimer, M. E., & Copeland, A. L. (2013). A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of two active conditions of a brief intervention for heavy college drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 38, 2094–2101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.01.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kypri, K., Hallett, J., Howat, P., McManus, A., Maycock, B., Bowe, S., & Horton, N. J. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of proactive web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169, 1508–1514. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2009.249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- LaBrie, J. W., Lewis, M. A., Atkins, D. C., Neighbors, C., Zheng, C., Kenney, S. R.,… Ghaidarov, T. M. (2013). RCT of web-based personalized normative feedback for college drinking prevention: Are typical student norms good enough? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 1074–1086. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034087.
- Larimer, M. E., Lee, C. M., Kilmer, J. R., Fabiano, P. M., Stark, C. B., Geisner, I. M., Mallett, K. A., Lostutter, T. W., Cronce, J. M., Feeney, M., & Neighbors, C. (2007). Personalized mailed feedback for college drinking prevention: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 285–293. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.75.2.285.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lau, H. C. (2006). Development and evaluation of a single-session expectancy challenge intervention to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking college students (doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida). Dissertation abstracts international, Ph.D.(67, 9-B), . (University Microfilms No. 3233658).Google Scholar
- Leffingwell, T. R., Leedy, M. J., & Lack, C. W. (2005). A multimedia computer-based intervention for college student drinking: Short-term outcomes of a randomized trial. In Paper presented at the meeting of the association for behavioral and cognitive therapies, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Logan, D. E. (2013). Alcohol interventions for mandated students (project AIMS) (doctoral dissertation, University of Washington).Google Scholar
- Logan, D. E., Kilmer, J. R., King, K. M., & Larimer, M. E. (2015). Alcohol interventions for mandated students: Behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76, 31–37. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.76.1.31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lovecchio, C. P. (2009). On-line alcohol education: Impact on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of first -year college students (Doctoral Dissertation, Villanova University).Google Scholar
- Lovecchio, C. P., Wyatt, T. M., & DeJong, W. (2010). Reductions in drinking and alcohol-related harms reported by first-year college students taking an online alcohol education course: A randomized trial. Journal of Health Communication, 15, 805–819. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.514032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin, J. L. (2014). Does personalized feedback enhance outcomes for students who drink to cope? A pilot study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, S-195, 64A–64A.Google Scholar
- Mastroleo, N. (2008). Comparison of supervision training techniques in a motivational enhancement intervention on college student drinking (Doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(69, 11), 180. (University Microfilms No. 3336087).Google Scholar
- Matteucci, A., Reif, S., & Paschall, M. J. (2016). Detecting variation in college student drinking patterns: An argument for creating alcohol-free environments and implementing campus policies. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, S-427, 122A–122A.Google Scholar
- McNally, A. M. (2003). Motivational interventions for problematic alcohol use: In search of the mechanisms of action (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(63, 10-B), 144. (University Microfilms No. 3067197).Google Scholar
- McNally, A. M., Palfai, T. P., & Kahler, C. W. (2005). Motivational interventions for heavy drinking college students: Examining the role of discrepancy-related psychological processes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 79–87. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164x.19.1.79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McPherson, P. (2012). Efficacy of brief alcohol interventions in an Australian tertiary education setting (Doctoral dissertation, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Australia). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D., 274.Google Scholar
- Miller, E. T. (2000). Preventing alcohol abuse and alcohol-related negative consequences among freshmen college students: Using emerging computer technology to deliver and evaluate the effectiveness of brief intervention efforts (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(61, 8-B), 271. (University Microfilms No. 9983525).Google Scholar
- Monahan, C. J., McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Dennhardt, A. A., Skidmore, J. R., Martens, M. P., & Murphy, J. G. (2013). The impact of elevated posttraumatic stress on the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions for heavy drinking college students (STUDY 3035 is for BASICS-ECHUG STUDY). Addictive Behaviors, 38, 1719–1725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murphy, J. G., Dennhardt, A. A., Skidmore, J. R., Martens, M. P., & McDevitt-Murphy, M. E. (2010). Computerized versus motivational interviewing alcohol interventions: Impact on discrepancy, motivation, and drinking (STUDY 3035 is for BASICS-ECHUG STUDY). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 628–639. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021347.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Murphy, J. G., Dennhardt, A. A., Yurasek, A. M., Skidmore, J. R., Martens, M. P., MacKillop, J., & McDevitt-Murphy, M. E. (2015). Behavioral economic predictors of brief alcohol intervention outcomes (STUDY 3035 is for BASICS-ECHUG STUDY). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 1033–1043. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000032.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Murphy, J. G., Duchnick, J. J., Vuchinich, R. E., Davison, J. W., Karg, R. S., Olson, A. M., . . . Coffey, T. T. (2001). Relative efficacy of a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 373–379. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.15.4.373.
- O'Leary, T. A., Brown, S. A., Colby, S. M., Cronce, J. M., D'Amico, E. J., Fader, J. S., . . . Monti, P. M. (2002). Treating adolescents together or individually? Issues in adolescent substance abuse interventions. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 890–899. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2002.tb02619.x.
- Paschall, M. J., Antin, T., Ringwalt, C. L., & Saltz, R. F. (2011b). Evaluation of an internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course for college freshmen: Findings of a randomized multi-campus trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41, 300–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.03.021.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Roberts, L. J., Neal, D. J., Kivlahan, D. R., Baer, J. S., & Marlatt, G. A. (2000). Individual drinking changes following a brief intervention among college students: Clinical significance in an indicated preventive context. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 500–505. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.68.3.500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schaus, J. F., Sole, M. L., McCoy, T. P., Mullett, N., & O'Brien, M. C. (2009). Alcohol screening and brief intervention in a college student health center: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, (Suppl. 16), 131–141.Google Scholar
- Simão, M. O., Kerr-Corrêa, F., Smaira, S. I., Trinca, L. A., Floripes, T. M. F., Dalben, I., . . . Tucci, A. M. (2008). Prevention of “risky” drinking among students at a Brazilian university. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43, 470–476. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agn019.
- Teeters, J. B., Borsari, B., Martens, M. P., & Murphy, J. G. (2015). Brief motivational interventions are associated with reductions in alcohol-impaired driving among college drinkers (STUDY 3090 is for BASICS-ALC101 STUDY). Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76, 700–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Terlecki, M. (2011). The long-term effect of a brief motivational alcohol intervention for heavy drinking mandated college students (doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana). Dissertation Abstracts International, 73.Google Scholar
- Terlecki, M. A. (2008). Alcohol use, negative consequences, and readiness to change in mandated and volunteer college student heavy drinkers before and after a brief alcohol intervention (Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, M.A., 79.Google Scholar
- Terlecki, M. A., Buckner, J. D., Larimer, M. E., & Copeland, A. L. (2012). Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: The synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 917–923. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027982.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Terlecki, M. A., Buckner, J. D., Larimer, M. E., & Copeland, A. L. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of brief alcohol screening and intervention for college students for heavy-drinking mandated and volunteer undergraduates: 12-month outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000056.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Terlecki, M. A., Copeland, A. L., Larimer, M. E., & Taylor, H. A. (2008). A brief alcohol intervention for heavy drinking mandated and volunteer college students. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 32, 242A–242A.Google Scholar
- Terry, D. L. (2012). Screening and brief intervention for hazardous alcohol use: A pilot study in a college counseling center (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University). Dissertation Abstracts International, Ph.D.(74, 02-E), 137. (University Microfilms No. 3527869).Google Scholar
- Tollison, S. J., Mastroleo, N. R., Mallett, K. A., Witkiewitz, K., Lee, C. M., Ray, A. E., & Larimer, M. E. (2013). The relationship between baseline drinking status, peer motivational interviewing microskills, and drinking outcomes in a brief alcohol intervention for matriculating college students: A replication. Behavior Therapy, 44, 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Whiteside, U. (2010). A brief personalized feedback intervention integrating a motivational interviewing therapeutic style and dialectical behavioral therapy skills for depressed or anxious heavy drinking young adults (Zotero’s generic thesis/dissertation reference - override with correct option). University of Washington, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
- Wood, M. D., Fairlie, A. M., Fernandez, A. C., Borsari, B., Capone, C., Laforge, R., & Carmona-Barros, R. (2010). Brief motivational and parent interventions for college students: A randomized factorial study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 349–361. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019166.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar