Advertisement

Prevention Science

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 342–352 | Cite as

Is Alcohol and Other Substance Use Reduced When College Students Attend Alcohol-Free Programs? Evidence from a Measurement Burst Design Before and After Legal Drinking Age

  • Eric K. LaylandEmail author
  • Brian H. Calhoun
  • Michael A. Russell
  • Jennifer L. Maggs
Article

Abstract

College drinking and its negative consequences remain a major public health concern. Yet, many prevention efforts targeting college drinkers are expensive, are difficult to implement, use indicated approaches targeting only high-risk drinkers, and/or are only marginally effective. An alternative strategy taken explicitly or implicitly by many colleges is campus-led alcohol-free programming which provides students with attractive leisure alternatives to drinking on weekend nights. This study aimed to extend work by Patrick et al. (Prevention Science, 11, 155–162, 2010), who found that students drank less on weekend nights they attended LateNight Penn State (LNPS) activities during their first semester of college. Here, daily diary and longitudinal data on college students’ daily lives and risk behaviors were collected from 730 students on 19,506 person-days across seven semesters at a large university in the Northeastern United States. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate alcohol and illegal substance use on weekend days as a function of LNPS attendance, gender, legal drinking status (≥ 21 years), and day of the weekend. Across college, students who attended LNPS used alcohol and illegal substances less in general and less on days they participated compared to themselves on days they did not participate. Legal drinking status moderated the association between LNPS attendance and alcohol and illegal substance use such that levels of use were lowest for students under 21 years old on weekend days they attended LNPS. Our findings provide support for campus-led alcohol-free programming as a potential harm reduction strategy on college campuses.

Keywords

College drinking Alcohol use Substance use Prevention Multi-level modeling 

Notes

Funding Information

This research was supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant R01 AA016016. The first author was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under award number T32 DA017629. The third author is supported by grant numbers P50 DA010075 and P50 DA039838 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The views expressed in this article are ours and do not necessarily represent the official views of granting agencies.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

The research was conducted in full compliance with the APA standards for ethical practice in research, under the review of the Pennsylvania State University Institutional Review Board. These findings have not been published in any form nor submitted for consideration elsewhere.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Correia, C. J., Benson, T. A., & Carey, K. B. (2005). Decreased substance use following increases in alternative behaviors: A preliminary investigation. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coxe, S., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2009). The analysis of count data: A gentle introduction to Poisson regression and its alternatives. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cronce, J. M., & Larimer, M. E. (2011). Individual-focused approaches to the prevention of college student drinking. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34, 210–221.Google Scholar
  4. DeJong, W., and Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement(14), 140–147.Google Scholar
  5. Del Boca, F. K., Darkes, J., Greenbaum, P. E., & Goldman, M. S. (2004). Up close and personal: Temporal variability in the drinking of individual college students during their first year. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fenzel, L. M. (2005). Multivariate analyses of predictors of heavy episodic drinking and drinking-related problems among college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 126–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Finlay, A. K., Ram, N., Maggs, J. L., & Caldwell, L. L. (2012). Leisure activities, the social weekend, and alcohol use: Evidence from a daily study of first-year college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 625–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hingson, R. W., Heeren, T., Zakocs, R. C., Kopstein, A., & Wechsler, H. (2002). Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among US college students ages 18-24. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 136–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hingson, R. W., Zha, W., & Weitzman, E. R. (2009). Magnitude of and trends in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among US college students ages 18-24, 1998-2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Supplement(16), 12–20.Google Scholar
  11. Howard, A. L., Patrick, M. E., & Maggs, J. L. (2015). College student affect and heavy drinking: Variable associations across days, semesters, and people. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 430–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2016). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2015: Volume 2, college students and adults ages 19–55. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  13. Lipari, R. N., Crane, E. H., Cai, R., Strashny, A., & Dean, D. (2014). A day in the life of young adults: Substance abuse facts. In The CBHSQ report: June 10, 2014. Rockville: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  14. Maggs, J. L., Williams, L. R., & Lee, C. M. (2011). Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Miech, R. A., Patrick, M. E., O’Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (2017). The influence of college attendance on risk for marijuana initiation in the United States: 1977 to 2015. American Journal of Public Health, 107, 996–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murphy, J. G., & Dennhardt, A. A. (2016). The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse. Preventive Medicine, 92, 24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Murphy, J. G., Correia, C. J., & Barnett, N. P. (2007). Behavioral economic approaches to reduce college student drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 2573–2585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (2003). Recommended alcohol questions. Accessed July 10, 2017 at: https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/research/guidelines-and-resources/recommended-alcohol-questions.
  19. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (2015) Planning college alcohol interventions using NIAAA’s CollegeAIM Alcohol Intervention Matrix. NIH Publication No. 15-AA-8017.Google Scholar
  20. Nelson, T. F., Naimi, T. S., Brewer, R. D., & Wechsler, H. (2005). The state sets the rate: The relationship among state-specific college binge drinking, state binge drinking rates, and selected state alcohol control policies. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 441–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Osgood, D. W., & Anderson, A. L. (2004). Unstructured socializing and rates of delinquency. Criminology, 42, 519–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Palmer, R. S., McMahon, T. J., Moreggi, D. I., Rounsaville, B. J., & Ball, S. A. (2012). College student drug use: Patterns, concerns, consequences, and interest in intervention. Journal of College Student Development, 53, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Patrick, M. E., & Terry-McElrath, Y. M. (2017). High-intensity drinking by underage young adults in the United States. Addiction, 112, 82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patrick, M. E., Maggs, J. L., & Osgood, D. W. (2010). LateNight Penn State alcohol-free programming: Students drink less on days they participate. Prevention Science, 11, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Perkins, H. W. (2002). Surveying the damage: A review of research on consequences of alcohol misuse in college populations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement(14), 91–100.Google Scholar
  26. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Slutske, W. S., Hunt-Carter, E. E., Nabors-Oberg, R. E., Sher, K. J., Bucholz, K. K., Madden, P. A., et al. (2004). Do college students drink more than their non-college-attending peers? Evidence from a population-based longitudinal female twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 530–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stone, A. L., Becker, L. G., Huber, A. M., & Catalano, R. F. (2012). Review of risk and protective factors of substance use and problem use in emerging adulthood. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 747–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2007). The surgeon general’s call to action to prevent and reduce underage drinking. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General.Google Scholar
  30. Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. B. (2014). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. New England Journal of Medicine, 370, 2219–2227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Water, M. C., Carr, P. J., & Kefalas, M. J. (2011). Introduction. In M. C. Water (Ed.), Coming of age in America (pp. 1–27). Los Angeles: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wechsler, H., & Nelson, T. F. (2001). Binge drinking and the American college students: What’s five drinks? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wechsler, H., & Nelson, T. F. (2008). What we have learned from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing attention on college student alcohol consumption and the environmental conditions that promote it. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 481–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G. W., Davenport, A., & Castillo, S. (1995). Correlates of college student binge drinking. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 921–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wei, J., Barnett, N. P., & Clark, M. (2010). Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 572–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weitzman, E. R., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Giving means receiving: The protective effect of social capital on binge drinking on college campuses. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1936–1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Weybright, E. H., Cooper, B. R., Beckmeyer, J., Bumpus, M. F., Hill, L. G., & Agley, J. (2016). Moving beyond drinking to have a good time: A person-centered approach to identifying reason typologies in legal-aged college student drinkers. Prevention Science, 17, 679–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. White, A., & Hingson, R. (2014). The burden of alcohol use: Excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among college students. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 35, 201–218.Google Scholar
  39. White, A. M., Kraus, C. L., & Swartzwelder, H. S. (2006). Many college freshmen drink at levels far beyond the binge threshold. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30, 1006–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric K. Layland
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brian H. Calhoun
    • 1
  • Michael A. Russell
    • 1
  • Jennifer L. Maggs
    • 1
  1. 1.Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA

Personalised recommendations