The Triple P Implementation Framework: the Role of Purveyors in the Implementation and Sustainability of Evidence-Based Programs
- 748 Downloads
Evidence-based programs are considered critical in the human services field if major social and health problems are to be addressed. Despite the large number of programs that have been developed and implemented, there is much to learn about how to effectively implement these programs in community settings. One perspective that is rarely represented in the literature is that of the purveyor organization (an organization that actively works to disseminate and support the implementation of a program or practice). This paper introduces the Triple P Implementation Framework, developed by the program’s purveyor organization, and discusses principles underlying the design and implementation of the Framework. The Framework incorporates two key underlying principles of the Triple P system: minimal sufficiency and self-regulation. Lessons learned from the application of these principles and the implementation process are discussed, along with directions for future research.
KeywordsImplementation Evidence-based programs Triple P Purveyor Public health
The development of the Triple P Implementation Framework was funded by Triple P International Pty Ltd. A number of employees at Triple P International contributed to the development of the Framework. The core working group members included Jenna McWilliam, Jacquie Brown, Debbie Easton, Randall Ahn, Sara van Driel, and Sarah Munro. The authors thank Natasha Smouha and Felicity Smith for her help in editing this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The Triple P–Positive Parenting Program® (Triple P) is owned by The University of Queensland. The University, through its technology transfer company, UniQuest Pty Ltd, has licensed Triple P International Pty Ltd to publish and disseminate the program worldwide. Royalties stemming from published Triple P resources are distributed to the Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, and contributory authors. No author has any share or ownership in Triple P International Pty Ltd. Jenna McWilliam is an employee of Triple P International. Jacquie Brown is a consultant with Triple P International. Matthew Sanders is the founder of Triple P, an author, and a part-time consultant with Triple P International Pty Ltd.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Balas, E. A., & Boren, S. A. (2000). Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement. In J. Bemmel & A. T. McCray (Eds.), Yearbook of medical informatics 2000: patient-centred systems (pp. 65–70). Stuttgart: Schattauer.Google Scholar
- Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Reid, J., & Landsverk, J. (2008). Cascading implementation of a foster and kinship parent intervention. Child Welfare, 87, 24–48.Google Scholar
- Dirscherl, T., Dirscherl, R., McWilliam, J., & Sanders, M. R. (2015). CAPCAL: a planning tool for scaling up evidence-based public health interventions. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
- Fives, A., Pursell, L., Heary, C., Nic Gabhainn, S., & Canavan, J. (2014). Parenting support for every parent: a population-level evaluation of Triple P in Longford Westmeath. Final report. Athlone: Longford Westmeath Parenting Partnership (LWPP).Google Scholar
- Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Timbers, G. D., & Wolf, M. M. (2001). In search of program implementation: 792 replications of the teaching-family model. In G. A. Bernfeld, D. P. Farrington, & A. W. Leschield (Eds.), Offender rehabilitation in practice: Implementation and evaluating effective programs (pp. 149–166). London:Wiley.Google Scholar
- Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature. (FMHI Publication No. 231). Tampa: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, National Implementation Research Network.Google Scholar
- Grol, R., & Wensing, M. (2005). Effective implementation: a model. In R. Grol, M. Wensing, & M. Eccles (Eds.), Improving patient care: the implementation of change in clinical practice (pp. 41–57). Edinburgh: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Brondino, M. J., Scherer, D. G., & Hanley, J. H. (1997). Multisystemic therapy with violent and chronic juvenile offenders and their families: the role of treatment fidelity in successful dissemination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 821–833. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.5.821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
- Little, M., Berry, V., Morpeth, L., Blower, S., Axford, N., Taylor, R., Bywater, T., Lehtonen, M., & Tobin, K. (2012). The impact of three evidence-based programmes delivered in public systems in Birmingham, UK. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6, 260–272.Google Scholar
- Oosthuizen, C., & Louw, J. (2013). Developing program theory for purveyor programs. Implementation Science, 8. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-23.
- Powell, B. J., McMillen, J. C., Proctor, E. K., Carpenter, C. R., Griffey, R. T., Bunger, A. C., … & York, J. L. (2012). A compilation of strategies for implementing clinical innovations in health and mental health. Medical Care Research and Review, 69, 123–157. doi: 10.1177/1077558711430690.
- Powell, B.J., Proctor, E.K., & Glass, J. E. (2014). A systematic review of strategies for implementing empirically supported mental health interventions. Research on Social Work Practice, 24. doi: 10.1177/1049731513505778.
- Proctor, E. K., Powell, B. J., & McMillen, J. C. (2013). Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting. Implementation Science, 8. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-139.
- Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Sanders, M. R., Ralph, A., Sofronoff, K., Gardiner, P., Thompson, R., Dwyer, S., & Bidwell, K. (2008). Every family: a population approach to reducing behavioural and emotional problems in children making the transition to school. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29, 197–222. doi: 10.1007/s10935-008-0139-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sanders, M. R., Turner, K., & McWilliam, J. (2016). The Triple P—positive parenting program: a community-wide approach to parenting and family support. In M. J. Van Ryzin, K. L. Kumpfer, G. M. Fosco, & M. T. Greenberg (Eds.), Family-based prevention programs for children and adolescents. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Sethi, S., Kerns, S. E. U., Sanders, M. R., & Ralph, A. (2014). The international dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions: impact on practitioner content and process self-efficacy. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 16, 126–137. doi: 10.1080/14623730.2014.917896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turner, K. M. T., Nicholson, J. M., & Sanders, M. R. (2011). The role of practitioner self-efficacy, training, program and workplace factors on the implementation of an evidence-based parenting intervention in primary care. Journal of Primary Prevention, 32, 95–112. doi: 10.1007/s10935-011-0240-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2004). Outcome Evaluation of Washington state’s research-based programs for juvenile offenders. Retrieved from: http://wsipp.wa.gov/ReportFile/852.
- World Health Organization. (2009). Preventing violence through the development of safe, stable and nurturing relationships between children and their parents and caregivers. Series of briefings on violence prevention: the evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Zubrick, S. R., Ward, K. A., Silburn, S. R., Lawrence, D., Williams, A. A., Blair, E., … & Sanders, M. R. (2005). Prevention of child behavior problems through universal implementation of a group behavioral family intervention. Prevention Science, 6, 287–304. doi: 10.1007/s11121-005-0013-2.