The Ultimate Goal of Prevention and the Larger Context for Translation
- 517 Downloads
Type II translational research tends to emphasize getting evidence-based programs implemented in real world settings. To fully realize the aspirations of prevention scientists, we need a broader strategy for translating knowledge about human wellbeing into population-wide improvements in wellbeing. Far-reaching changes must occur in policies and cultural practices that affect the quality of family, school, workplace, and community environments. This paper describes a broad cultural movement, not unlike the tobacco control movement, that can make nurturing environments a fundamental priority of public policy and daily life, thereby enhancing human wellbeing far beyond anything achieved thus far.
KeywordsImproved wellbeing Translational research Policy change Nurturing environments Cultural evolution
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (1R01AA021726) and the National Institute of Child Health and Development (1R01HD060922) provided financial support for the author during his work on this manuscript. The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIAAA, NICHD, or the National Institutes of Health. The author thanks Christine Cody for her editorial assistance.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals
This article has no methods section and provides no other information on studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.
- Baron, J. (2007). Making policy work: The lesson from medicine (commentary). Education Week. Online at http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2007/05/23/38baron.h26.html?qs=Baron
- Biglan, A. (2004). Direct written testimony in the case of the U.S.A. vs. Phillip Morris et al. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Biglan, A. (2015a). The nurture effect: How the science of human behavior can improve our lives and our world. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
- Biglan, A. (2015b). Evolving a more nurturing capitalism: A new Powell memo. This View of Life. Available at https://evolution-institute.org/article/evolving-a-more-nurturing-capitalism-a-new-powell-memo/.
- Biglan, A., Brennan, P. A., Foster, S. L., & Holder, H. D. (2004). Helping adolescents at risk: Prevention of multiple problem behaviors. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Biglan, A., Severson, H., Ary, D. V., Faller, C., Gallison, C., Thompson, R., et al. (1987). Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 159–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bracht, N. (1999). Health promotion at the community level. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Cardosos, G. (2005). Societies in transition to the network society. In M. Castells & G. Cardoso (Eds.), The network society: From knowledge to policy (pp. 23–70). Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Center for Transatlantic Relations.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Current cigarette smoking among adults-United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61, 889–894.Google Scholar
- Glasgow, R. E., & Steiner, J. F. (2012). Comparative effectiveness research to accelerate translation: Recommendations for an emerging field of science. In R. C. Brownson, G. Colditz, & E. Proctor (Eds.), Dissemination and implementation research in health: Translating science and practice (pp. 72–93). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gottfredson, D. C, Cook, T. D., Gardner, F. E. M., Gorman-Smith, D., Howe, G. W., Sandler, I. N., Zafft, K. M. (2015). Standards of evidence for efficacy, effectiveness, and scale-up research in prevention science: Next generation. Prevention Science.Google Scholar
- Gould, E., & Wething, H. (2012). US poverty rates higher, safety net weaker than in peer countries. Economic Policy Institute Issue brief #339. Available online at http://www.epi.org/publication/ib339-us-poverty-higher-safety-net-weaker/.
- Hacker, J. S., Pierson, P., & Moyers, B. D. (2012). Winner-take-all politics. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2007). Ending the tobacco problem: A blueprint for the nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Johnson, S. (2006). The ghost map. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
- Jordá, V., & Sarabia, J. M. (2015). International convergence in well-being indicators. Social Indicators Research, 120, 1–27Google Scholar
- Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Sidora, K., Henderson Jr, C. R., Hanks, C., Cole, R., ... & Glazner, J. (2000). Enduring effects of nurse home visitation on maternal life course: a 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 1983–1989.Google Scholar
- Komro, K. A., Biglan, A., Flay, B. R., & Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium. (2011). Creating nurturing environments: A science-based framework for promoting child health and development within high-poverty neighborhoods. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 111–134.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Komro, K. A., Tobler, A. L., Delisle, A. L., Ryan, J. O., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2013). Beyond the clinic: Improving child health through evidence-based community development. BMC Pediatrics, 13, 172. Available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/13/172.
- Komro, K., O’Mara, R. J., & Wagenaar, A. (April 10, 2012). Mechanisms of legal effect: Perspectives from public health. Public Health Law Research Methods Monograph Series. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2042591.
- McElwee, S. (2013 November). GOP is an anti-science party of nuts (sorry, Atlantic). Salon. http://www.salon.com/2013/11/13/gop_is_an_anti_science_party_of_nuts_sorry_atlantic
- McLean, B., & Nocera, J. (2010). All the devils are here: Unmasking the men who bankrupted the world. London: Penguin UK.Google Scholar
- Mrazek, P., Biglan, A., & Hawkins, J.D. (2004). Community-monitoring systems: Tracking and improving the well-being of America’s children and adolescents. Falls Church, VA: SPR at http://www.preventionresearch.org/advocacy/community-monitoring-systems/.
- Murray, D. M. (1998). Design and analysis of group-randomized trials. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- National Cancer Institute (2008). The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Tobacco Control Monograph No. 19. Bethesda, MD: USDHHS.Google Scholar
- National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Nichols, M. P., & Schwartz, R. C. (1998). Family therapy: Concepts and methods. New York: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Olds, D. L., Eckenrode, J., Henderson, C. R., Kitzman, H., Powers, J., Cole, R., & Luckey, D. (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect: Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 637–643.Google Scholar
- Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2010). Cascading effects following intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 949–970.Google Scholar
- Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Supplee, L., Gardner, F., & Arnds, K. (2006). Randomized trial of a family-centered approach to the prevention of early conduct problems: 2-year effects of the family check-up in early childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spoth, R., & Greenberg, M. (2011). Impact challenges in community science-with-practice: Lessons from PROSPER on transformative practitioner-scientist partnerships and prevention infrastructure development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 106–119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Spoth, R., Guyll, M., Redmond, C., Greenberg, M., & Feinberg, M. (2011). Six-year sustainability of evidence-based intervention implementation quality by community-university partnerships: The PROSPER study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 412–425.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Stokols, D. (1992). Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: toward a social ecology of health promotion. American Psychologist, 47, 6–22.Google Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA.Google Scholar
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: USDHHS.Google Scholar
- United States v. Philip Morris USA, Inc. (2006). Civil Action No. 99–2496 (DDC 2012), Final Order.Google Scholar
- Wagenaar, A. C., & Burris, S. C. (Eds.). (2013). Public health law research: Theory and methods. New York: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Wagenaar, A. C., Maldonado-Molina, M., & Wagenaar, B. H. (2009). Effects of alcohol tax increases on disease mortality in Alaska: Time-series analyses from 1976 to 2004. 99, 1464–1470.Google Scholar
- Warren, K. (2014). A fighting chance. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
- Webster-Stratton, C., & Mihalic, S. F. (2001). The incredible years: Parent, teacher and child training series. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.Google Scholar
- Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K. (2009). The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. London: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
- Wilson, D. S. (2011). The neighborhood project: Using evolution to improve my city, one block at a time. New York: Little, Brown.Google Scholar