Prevention Science

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 967–977 | Cite as

Research Designs for Intervention Research with Small Samples II: Stepped Wedge and Interrupted Time-Series Designs

  • Carlotta Ching Ting FokEmail author
  • David Henry
  • James Allen


The stepped wedge design (SWD) and the interrupted time-series design (ITSD) are two alternative research designs that maximize efficiency and statistical power with small samples when contrasted to the operating characteristics of conventional randomized controlled trials (RCT). This paper provides an overview and introduction to previous work with these designs and compares and contrasts them with the dynamic wait-list design (DWLD) and the regression point displacement design (RPDD), which were presented in a previous article (Wyman, Henry, Knoblauch, and Brown, Prevention Science. 2015) in this special section. The SWD and the DWLD are similar in that both are intervention implementation roll-out designs. We discuss similarities and differences between the SWD and DWLD in their historical origin and application, along with differences in the statistical modeling of each design. Next, we describe the main design characteristics of the ITSD, along with some of its strengths and limitations. We provide a critical comparative review of strengths and weaknesses in application of the ITSD, SWD, DWLD, and RPDD as small sample alternatives to application of the RCT, concluding with a discussion of the types of contextual factors that influence selection of an optimal research design by prevention researchers working with small samples.


Research design Small samples Stepped wedge design Interrupted time-series design 


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlotta Ching Ting Fok
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Henry
    • 2
  • James Allen
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA
  2. 2.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth CampusDuluthUSA

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