The Acceptability of Parenting Strategies for Grandparents Providing Care to Their Grandchildren
Despite the evidence supporting parenting programmes as a pathway to reduce and prevent childhood emotional and behavioural problems, these programmes still have low rates of uptake by families in the community. One way of increasing the participation rates of families in parenting programmes is to adopt a consumer's perspective to programme design and development. This study sought to examine whether grandparents providing regular care to their grandchildren viewed the strategies advocated in a parenting programme developed specifically for them as being acceptable and useful, and whether there were barriers to programme use. Forty-five grandparents, with an average age of 61.4 years (SD = 5.0), participated in the study. Grandparents provided between 11 and 20 h of care per week to their grandchildren, who were on average 4.5 years old (SD = 2.4), with the majority being boys (60 %). Results revealed that grandparents found the strategies promoted in the parenting programme highly acceptable and useful and were likely to use the strategies. Barriers to using specific strategies included time demands and belief that a specific strategy would not work. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of consumer involvement in programme design and development.
KeywordsConsumer Programme design Evidence-based parenting programme Triple P Grandparents
- Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS]. (2012). Childhood education and care, Australia, June 2011 (catalogue no. 4402.0). http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/4402.0∼June+2011∼Main+Features∼Main+features?OpenDocument. Accessed 14 June 2012.
- Backhouse, J., & Graham, A. (2010). Grandparents raising grandchildren: Negotiating the complexities of role-identity conflict. Child & Family Social Work, 17, 306–315. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2206.2011.00781.x.
- Barer-Stein, T., & Kompf, M. (2001). The craft of teaching adults. Toronto: Irwin.Google Scholar
- Coall, D. A., & Hertwig, R. (2010). Grandparental investment: Past, present, and future. Behavioral and Brain Science, 33, 1–59. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X09991105
- Colvin, A., Eyberg, S., & Adams, C. (1999). Restandardization of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Retrieved Febrary 3, 2013, from http://www.pcit.org.
- Crawford, J. R., Cayley, C., Lovibond, P. F., Wilson, P. H., & Hartley, C. (2011). Percentile norms and accompanying interval estimates from an Australian general adult population sample for self-report mood scales (BAI, BDI, CRSD, CES-D, DASS, DASS-21, STAI-X, STAI-Y, SRDS, and SRAS). Australian Psychologist, 46, 3–14.Google Scholar
- Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg child behavior inventory and Sutter-Eyberg student behavior inventory—revised: Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Francese, P. (2009). The grandparent economy: A study of the population, spending habits and economic impact of grandparents in the United States. http://assets.grandparents.com/legacy/binary-data/The-Grandparent-Economy-April-2009.pdf Accessed 14 June, 2012.
- Goodfellow, J., & Laverty, J. (2003). Grandparents supporting working families: Satisfaction and choice in the provision of child care. Family Matters, 66, 14–19.Google Scholar
- Hayslip, B., & Patrick, J. (2003). Custodial grandparenting viewed from within a lifespan perspective. In B. Hayslip & J. Patrick (Eds.), Working with custodial grandparents (pp. 3–12). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hendricks, A. K. (2010). Changing roles: The pleasures of being a grandparent in New Zealand. A families commission report. http://www.oscarnetwork.org.nz/site/oscarnetwork/files/resources/FC-changing-roles.pdf Accessed 14 June 2012.
- Ireland, J. L., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2003). The impact of parent training on marital functioning: A comparison of two group versions of the Triple P- Positive Parenting Program for parents of children with early-onset conduct problems. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 31, 127–142.Google Scholar
- Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343.Google Scholar
- Morawska, A., Sanders, M. R., Goadby, E., Headley, C., Hodge, L., McAuliffe, C., et al. (2011). Is the Triple P-positive parenting program acceptable to parents from culturally diverse backgrounds? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 614–622. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9436-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ochiltree, G. (2006). The changing role of grandparents. Australian Family Relationships Clearing House, 2, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Rosenthal, D., & Moore, S. (2012). New age nanas: Being a grandmother in the 21st century. Newport: Big Sky Publishing.Google Scholar
- Sanders, M., Markie-Dadds, C., & Turner, K. M. T. (2005). Every parents survival guide [DVD]. Brisbane: Triple P International.Google Scholar
- Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Rinaldis, M., Firman, D., & Baig, N. (2007). Using household survey data to inform policy decisions regarding the delivery of evidenced-based parenting interventions. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33, 768–783.Google Scholar
- Smith, R. M. (1983). Learning how to learn: Applied learning theory for adults. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, G. C., Palmieri, P. A., Hancock, G. R., & Richardson, R. A. (2008). Custodial grandmothers’ psychological distress, dysfunctional parenting, and grandchildren’s adjustment. International Journal Aging & Human Development, 67(4), 327–357.Google Scholar
- Turner, K. M. T., Markie-Dadds, C., & Sanders, M. R. (2002). Facilitator's manual for group Triple P-revised edition. Brisbane: Triple P International.Google Scholar
- Zubrick, S. R., Ward, K. A., Silburn, S. R., Lawrence, D., Williams, A. A., Blair, E., et al. (2005). Prevention of child behavior problems through universal implementation of a group behavioral family intervention. Prevention Science, 6, 287–304. doi: 10.1007/s11121-005-0013-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar