Prevention System Mediation of Communities That Care Effects on Youth Outcomes
- 960 Downloads
This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789–798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CTC theory of change. Potential prevention system constructs included the community’s degree of (a) adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, (b) collaboration on prevention activities, (c) support for prevention, and (d) norms against adolescent drug use as reported by key community leaders in 24 communities. Higher levels of community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and support for prevention in 2004 predicted significantly lower levels of youth problem behaviors in 2007, and higher levels of community norms against adolescent drug use predicted lower levels of youth drug use in 2007. Effects of the CTC intervention on youth problem behaviors by the end of eighth grade were mediated fully by community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. No other significant mediated effects were found. Results support CTC’s theory of change that encourages communities to adopt a science-based approach to prevention as a primary mechanism for improving youth outcomes.
KeywordsCommunity prevention system Communities That Care Adolescent drug use Delinquency Multilevel mediation Underage drinking Alcohol use Tobacco use
This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA015183-03), with co-funding from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Cancer Institute, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration/Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. The content of this paper is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.
Portions of this study were presented in May 2010 at the 18th annual meeting of the Society for Prevention Research in Washington, DC.
Richard F. Catalano is a board member of Channing Bete Company, distributor of Supporting School Success® and Guiding Good Choices®. These programs were used in some communities in the study that produced the data set used in this paper.
- Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Olson, J. J. (2002). Community Key Informant Survey. Seattle: Social Development Research Group, University of Washington.Google Scholar
- Arthur, M. W., Glaser, R. R., & Hawkins, J. D. (2005). Steps towards community-level resilience: Community adoption of science-based prevention programming. In R. D. Peters, B. Leadbeater, & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Resilience in children, families, and communities: Linking context to practice and policy (pp. 177–194). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Brown, E. C., Briney, J. S., Oesterle, S., & Abbott, R. D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities That Care prevention system by coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 245–258.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beckhard, R., & Harris, R. T. (1987). Organizational transitions: Managing complex change (2nd ed.). Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- Fagan, A. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Engaging communities to prevent underage drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 34, 167–174.Google Scholar
- Fawcett, S. B., Paine, A. L., Francisco, V. T., & Vliet, M. (1993). Promoting health through community development. In D. S. Glenwick & L. A. Jason (Eds.), Promoting health and mental health in children, youth and families (pp. 233–255). Binghamton: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Duda, M. A., Naoom, S. F., & Van Dyke, M. (2010). Implementation of evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: Research findings and their implications for the future. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 435–450). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2002). Investing in your community's youth: An introduction to the Communities That Care system. South Deerfield: Channing Bete.Google Scholar
- Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., Egan, E., Brown, E. C., Abbott, R. D., et al. (2008b). Testing Communities That Care: The rationale, design and behavioral baseline equivalence of the Community Youth Development Study. Prevention Science, 9, 178–190.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hawkins, J. D., Oesterle, S., Brown, E. C., Arthur, M. W., Abbott, R. D., Fagan, A. A., et al. (2009). Results of a type 2 translational research trial to prevent adolescent drug use and delinquency: A test of Communities That Care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 789–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hawkins, J. D., Oesterle, S., Brown, E. C., Monahan, K. C., Abbott, R. D., Arthur, M. W., et al. (2012). Sustained decreases in risk exposure and youth problem behaviors after installation of the Communities That Care prevention system in a randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166, 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus (Version 6.1). Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
- O'Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (Eds.). (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, V. B., Oesterle, S., Abbott, R. D., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (in press). Measuring dimensions of coalition functioning for effective and participatory community practice. Social Work Research.Google Scholar
- Shinn, M. (1990). Mixing and matching: Levels of conceptualization, measurement, and statistical analysis in community research. In P. Tolan, C. Keys, F. Chertok, & L. Jason (Eds.), Researching community psychology: Issues of theory and methods (pp. 111–126). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Social Development Research Group. (2005). Community Youth Development Study, Youth Development Survey [Grades 5–7]. Seattle: Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington.Google Scholar
- Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Shin, C., Greenberg, M., Feinberg, M., & Schainker, L. (2013). PROSPER community-university partnership delivery system effects on substance misuse through 6 1/2 years past baseline from a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial. Preventive Medicine, 56, 190–196.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar