Prevention Science

, Volume 15, Supplement 1, pp 19–32 | Cite as

The Onset of STI Diagnosis Through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

  • Karl G. Hill
  • Jennifer A. Bailey
  • J. David Hawkins
  • Richard F. Catalano
  • Rick Kosterman
  • Sabrina Oesterle
  • Robert D. Abbott


The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log–log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African Americans.


Intervention Prevention Sexually transmitted infection Mediation Survival analysis Adolescence Adulthood 



Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA; R01DA003721, R01DA009679, R01DA024411) and 21548 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. These organizations had no further role in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the paper for publication.

Financial Disclosure

Dr. Catalano receives reimbursement for being a member of the board of Channing Bete Co., distributor of Supporting School Success and Guiding Good Choices.

Additional Information

Supporting School Success and Guiding Good Choices were tested in the study that produced the dataset used in this article.

Supplementary material

11121_2013_382_MOESM1_ESM.docx (51 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 50 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl G. Hill
    • 1
  • Jennifer A. Bailey
    • 1
  • J. David Hawkins
    • 1
  • Richard F. Catalano
    • 1
  • Rick Kosterman
    • 1
  • Sabrina Oesterle
    • 1
  • Robert D. Abbott
    • 2
  1. 1.Social Development Research Group, School of Social WorkUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Educational Psychology, College of EducationUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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