Prevention Science

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 277–282 | Cite as

Multiple Risk Factors During Pregnancy in South Africa: The Need for a Horizontal Approach to Perinatal Care

  • Mark Tomlinson
  • Mary J. O’Connor
  • Ingrid M. le Roux
  • Jacqueline Stewart
  • Nokwanele Mbewu
  • Jessica Harwood
  • Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Article

Abstract

South African children’s long-term health and well-being is jeopardized during their mothers’ pregnancies by the intersecting epidemics of HIV, alcohol use, low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) related to poor nutrition, and depressed mood. This research examines these overlapping risk factors among 1,145 pregnant Xhosa women living in 24 township neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa. Results revealed that 66 % of pregnant women experienced at least one risk factor. In descending order of prevalence, 37 % reported depressed mood, 29 % were HIV+, 25 % used alcohol prior to knowing that they were pregnant, and 15 % had a previous childbirth with a LBW infant. Approximately 27 % of women had more than one risk factor: depressed mood was significantly associated with alcohol use and LBW, with a trend to significance with HIV+. In addition, alcohol use was significantly related to HIV+. These results suggest the importance of intervening across multiple risks to maternal and child health, and particularly with depression and alcohol use, to positively impact multiple maternal and infant outcomes.

Keywords

Prenatal care delivery Pregnancy risk South Africa 

Notes

Acknowledgments

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant 1RO1AA017104-01A1(Rotheram-Borus, PI) supported this research. Mark Tomlinson is supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF, South Africa).

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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Tomlinson
    • 1
  • Mary J. O’Connor
    • 2
  • Ingrid M. le Roux
    • 3
  • Jacqueline Stewart
    • 1
  • Nokwanele Mbewu
    • 3
  • Jessica Harwood
    • 2
  • Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Philani Maternal, Child Health and Nutrition ProjectCape TownSouth Africa

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