Prevention Science

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 545–556 | Cite as

Caregiver Responsiveness to the Family Bereavement Program: What Predicts Responsiveness? What Does Responsiveness Predict?

  • Erin N. Schoenfelder
  • Irwin N. Sandler
  • Roger E. Millsap
  • Sharlene A. Wolchik
  • Cady Berkel
  • Timothy S. Ayers


The study developed a multidimensional measure to assess participant responsiveness to a preventive intervention and applied this measure to study how participant baseline characteristics predict responsiveness and how responsiveness predicts program outcomes. The study was conducted with caregivers who participated in the parenting-focused component of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a prevention program for families that have experienced parental death. The sample consisted of 89 caregivers assigned to the intervention condition in the efficacy trial of the FBP. Positive parenting, caregiver depression, and child externalizing problems at baseline were found to predict caregivers' use of program skills outside the group, and more child internalizing problems predicted more positive perceptions of the group environment. Higher levels of skill use during the program predicted increased positive parenting at the 11-month follow-up, whereas positive perceptions of the group environment predicted decreased caregiver depressive symptoms at follow-up. Caregiver skill use mediated the relation between baseline positive parenting and improvements in positive parenting at 11-month follow-up, and skill use and perceived group environment mediated changes in caregiver depression from baseline to 11-month follow-up.


Implementation Responsiveness Family prevention Parenting Parental bereavement 



The writing of this paper was funded in part by the National Institute of Health grant R01MH049155-06, gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

11121_2012_337_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 26 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erin N. Schoenfelder
    • 1
  • Irwin N. Sandler
    • 2
  • Roger E. Millsap
    • 2
  • Sharlene A. Wolchik
    • 2
  • Cady Berkel
    • 2
  • Timothy S. Ayers
    • 2
  1. 1.Duke Child and Family Studies CenterDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Arizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

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