Advertisement

Prevention Science

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 361–371 | Cite as

The Public Health Impact of Major Depression: A Call for Interdisciplinary Prevention Efforts

  • Katie A. McLaughlin
Article

Abstract

Major depression is a consequential public health problem in the United States. Depression has long been recognized as an important target of intervention in psychology and psychiatry, but these fields have focused efforts primarily on treatment rather than prevention. Although effective preventive interventions targeting high-risk groups have been developed, they have thus far had poor reach and sustainability in the community. The development of sustainable preventive interventions that have the potential to impact population health represents a critical goal for the field. To this end, a research agenda incorporating the perspectives of both mental health disciplines and public health is proposed as a guide for future depression prevention research. Increased interdisciplinary collaboration between mental health disciplines and public health is recommended to develop, enact, and evaluate multilevel preventive interventions aimed at reducing the population health burden of major depression.

Keywords

Prevention Depression Interdisciplinary Public health Population health 

References

  1. Adler, N. E., & Ostrove, J. M. (1999). Socioeconomic status and health: What we know and what we don’t. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 3–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afifi, T. O., Enns, M. W., Cox, B. J., Asmundson, G. J. G., Stein, M. B., & Sareen, J. (2008). Population attributable risk fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicde ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 946–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, G., Bergström, J., Carlbring, P., & Lindefors, N. (2006). The use of the internet in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 73–77.Google Scholar
  4. Barefoot, J. C., & Schroll, M. (1996). Symptoms of depression, acute myocardial infarction, and mortality in a community sample. Circulation, 93, 1976–1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beardslee, W., Ayoub, C., Watson Avery, M., Watts, C. L., & O'Carroll, K. L. (2010). Family connections: An approach for strengthening early care systems in facing depression and adversity. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 482–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beardslee, W., Salt, P., Porterfield, K., Rothberg, P. C., van de Velde, P., Swatling, S., et al. (1993). Comparisons of preventive interventions for families with parental affective disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 254–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, G. W., & Moran, P. (1997). Single mothers, poverty and depression. Psychological Medicine, 27, 21–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cardemil, E. V., Reivich, K. J., Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). The prevention of depressive symptoms in low-income minority middle school students. Prevention and Treatment, 5, Article (8).Google Scholar
  9. Clarke, G. N., Kelleher, C., Hornbrook, M., DeBar, L. L., Dickerson, J., & Gullion, C. (2009). Randomized effectiveness trial of an internet, pure self-help, cognitive behavioral intervention for depressive symptoms in young adults. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38, 222–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M. C., Lynch, T., Polen, M., Gale, J., Beardslee, W. R., et al. (2001). A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1127–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, J., Jaycox, L. H., Walker, D. W., Mannarino, A. P., Langley, A. K., & DuClos, J. L. (2009). Treating traumatized children after Hurricane Katrina: Project Fleur-de Lis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12, 55–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cuijpers, P., Muñoz, R. F., Clarke, G. N., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2009). Psychoeducational treatment and prevention of depression: The “Coping with Depression” course 30 years later. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 449–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dierker, L. C., Albano, A. M., Clarke, G. N., Heimberg, R. G., Kendall, P. C., Merikangas, K. E., et al. (2001). Screening for anxiety and depression in early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 929–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dimidjian, S., Hollon, S. D., Dobson, K. S., Schmaling, K. B., Kohlenberg, R. J., Addis, M. E., et al. (2006). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 658–670.Google Scholar
  15. Dodge, K. A., Berlin, L., Epstein, M., Spitz-Roth, A., O'Donnell, K., Kaufman, M., et al. (2004). The Durham Family Initiative: A preventive system of care. Child Welfare, 83, 109–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dooley, D., Fielding, J., & Levi, L. (1996). Health and unemployment. Annual Review of Public Health, 17, 449–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Felton, C. J. (2002). Project liberty: A public health responses to New Yorkers’ mental health needs arising the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 429–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ford, J. D., Trestman, R. L., Steinberg, K., Tennen, H., & Allen, S. (2004). Prospective association of anxiety, depressive, and addictive disorders with high utilization of primary, specialty, and emergency medical care. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 2145–2148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frasure-Smith, N., Lespérance, F., & Talajic, M. (1995). Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91, 999–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Frasure-Smith, N., Lespérance, F., & Talajic, M. (1993). Depression following myocardial infarction: Impact on 6-month survival. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 1819–1825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garber, J., Clarke, G. N., Weersing, V. R., Beardslee, W., Brent, D. A., Gladstone, T. R. G., et al. (2009). Prevetion of depression in at-risk adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 2215–2224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. M., Chaplin, T. M., Shatté, A. J., Samuels, B., et al. (2007). School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 9–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Jaycox, L. H., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). Prevention of depressive symptoms in schoolchildren: Two-year follow-up. Psychological Science, 6, 343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gladstone, T. R. G., & Beardslee, W. (January, 2010). Strategies for preventing youth depression. Paper presented at the Judge Baker Children’s Center Child Mental Health Forum. Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  26. Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don’t we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1261–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) I: Associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenberg, P. E., Kessler, R. C., Birnbaum, H. G., Leong, S. A., Lowe, S. W., Berglund, P. A., et al. (2003). The economic burden of depression in the United States: How did it change between 1990 and 2000? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 24, 1465–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 128–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Horowitz, J. L., & Garber, J. (2006). The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 401–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  32. Institute of Medicine. (2009). Depression in parents, parenting, and children. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  33. Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K. J., Gillham, J. E., Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 801–816.Google Scholar
  34. Jonas, B. S., Franks, P., & Ingram, D. D. (1997). Are symptoms of anxiety and depression risk factors for hypertension? Longitudinal evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey I epidemiologic follow-up study. Archives of Family Medicine, 6, 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jonas, B. S., & Mussolino, M. E. (2000). Symptoms of depression as a prospective risk factor for stroke. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 463–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Judd, L. L. (1997). The clinical course of unipolar major depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 989–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Keller, M. B., & Boland, R. J. (1998). Implications for failing to achieve successful long-term maintenance treatment of recurrent unipolar depression. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 348–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kessler, R. C. (1997). The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 191–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kessler, R. C., Akiskal, H. S., Ames, M., Birnbaum, H., Greenberg, P., Hirschfield, R. M. A., et al. (2006). Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of US workers. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1561–1568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3095–3105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kessler, R. C., Borges, G., & Walters, E. E. (1999). Prevalence of and risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 617–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kessler, R. C., & Walters, E. E. (1998). Epidemiology of DSM-III-R MDD and minor depression among adolescents and young adults in the National Comorbidity Survey. Depression and Anxiety, 7, 3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kessler, R. C., Zhao, S., & Blazer, D. G. (1997). Prevalence, course, and correlates of minor and MDD in the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Affective Disorders, 45, 19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lespérance, F., Frasure-Smith, N., Juneau, M., & Théroux, P. (2000). Depression and 1-year prognosis in unstable angina. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 1354–1360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lynch, F. L., Hornbrook, M., Clarke, G. N., Perrin, N., Polen, M. R., O’Connor, E., et al. (2005). Cost-effectiveness of an intervention to prevent depression in at-risk teens. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1241–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McKinlay, J., & Marceau, L. (2000). US public health and the 21st century: Diabetes mellitus. The Lancet, 356, 757–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McLaughlin, K. A. (2008). Universal prevention of adolescent depression. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 661–683). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. McQuaid, J. R., Stein, M. B., Laffaye, C., & McCahill, M. E. (1999). Depression in a primary care clinic: The prevalence and impact of an unrecognized disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 55, 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Merikangas, K. M., He, J., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Merry, S., McDowell, H., Hetrick, S., Bir, J., Muller, N. (2004). Psychological and/or educational interventions for the prevention of depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, Article No.: CD003380Google Scholar
  52. Mojtabai, R. (2001). Impairment in MDD: Implications for diagnosis. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 206–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Muñoz, R. F., Ying, Y.-W., Bernal, G., Pérez-Stable, E. J., Sorensen, J. L., Hargreaves, W. A., et al. (1995). Prevention of depression with primary care patients: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 199–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Muñoz, R. F., Lenert, L. L., Delucchi, K., Stoddard, J., Perez, J. E., Penilla, C., et al. (2006). Toward evidence-based internet interventions: A Spanish/English website for international smoking cessation trials. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Murray, C. J. L, & Lopez, A. D. (1996). The global burden of disease. Cambridge, MD: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Murray, C. J. L, & Lopez, A. D. (2002). World health report, 2002: Reducing risks, promoting health life. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  57. Office of Applied Studies. (2006). Suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, major depressive episode, and substance use among adults. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  58. Olfson, M., Gameroff, M. J., Marcus, S. C., & Waslick, B. D. (2003). Outpatient treatment of child and adolescent depression in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1236–1242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Olfson, M., Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., & Lin, E. (1998). Psychiatric disorder onset and first treatment contact in the United States and Ontario. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1415–1422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Patton, G., Coffey, C., Posterino, M., Carlin, J., Wolfe, R., & Bowes, G. (1999). A computerised screening instrument for adolescent depression: Population-based validation and application to a two-phase case-control study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Fava, J. L., Rossi, J. S., & Tsoh, J. Y. (2001). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reivich, K.J., & Gillham, J.E. (2011). Resilience research in children: The Penn Resiliency Project. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/prpsum.htm
  64. Robinson, E., Titov, N., Andrews, G., McIntyre, K., Schwencke, G., & Solley, K. (2010). Internet treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technical assistance. PloS One, 5, e10942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rose, G. (1981). Strategy of prevention: Lessons from cardiovascular disease. British Medical Journal, 282, 1847–1851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rose, G. (1992). The strategy of preventive medicine (vol. 1). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Seitz, V., Rosenbaum, L. K., & Apfel, N. H. (1985). Effects of family support intervention: A ten-year follow-up. Child Development, 56, 376–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Seligman, M.E.P., Schulman, P., DeRubeis, R.J., Holland, S.D. (1999). The prevention of depression and anxiety. Prevention and Treatment, 2, Article 8.Google Scholar
  69. Sheffield, J. K., Spence, S. H., Rapee, R. M., Kowalenko, N., Wignall, A., Davis, A., et al. (2006). Evaluation of universal, indicated, and combined cognitive-behavioral approaches to the prevention of depression among adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 66–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shochet, I., Dadds, M. R., Holland, D., Whitefield, K., Harnett, P. H., Osgarby, H. M. (2001). The efficacy of a universal school-based program to prevent adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 303–315.Google Scholar
  71. Slade, E. P. (2003). The relationship between school characteristics and the availability of mental health and related health services in middle and high schools in the United States. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 30, 382–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Solantaus, T., Paavonen, E. J., Toikka, S., & Punamäki, R.-L. (2010). Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: Children’s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 883–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Soloman, D. A., Keller, M. B., Leon, A. C., Mueller, T. I., Shea, M. T., Warshaw, M., et al. (1997). Recovery from MDD: A 10-year prospective follow up across multiple episodes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 1001–1006.Google Scholar
  74. Spence, S. H., Sheffield, J. K., & Donovan, C. L. (2003). Preventing adolescent depression: Evaluation of the problem solving for life program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 3–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stewart, W. F., Ricci, J. A., Chee, E., Hahn, S. R., & Morganstein, D. (2003). Cost of lost productive work time among US workers with depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3135–3144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stice, E., Shaw, H., Bohon, C., Marti, C. N., & Rohde, P. (2009). A meta-analytic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents: Factors that predict magnitude of intervention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 486–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Surtees, P. G., Wainwright, W. J., Khaw, K.-T., & Day, N. E. (2003). Functional health status, chronic medical conditions, and disorders of mood. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 299–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thompson, L. W., Gallagher, D., Nies, G., & Epstein, D. (1983). Evaluation of the effectiveness of professionals and nonprofessionals as instructors of “Coping with Depression” classes for elders. Gerontology, 23, 390–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Understand and improving health (2nd Ed.). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  80. van Straten, A. (2008). Effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 10, e7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang, P. A., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H. A., Wells, K. B., Kessler, R. C. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629–640.Google Scholar
  82. Wang, P. S., Patrick, A., Avorn, J., Azocar, F., Ludman, E., McCulloch, J., et al. (2006). The costs and benefits of enhanced depression care to employers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1345–1353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang, P. S., Simon, G. E., & Kessler, R. C. (2008). Making the business case for enhanced depression care: The National Institute of Mental Health-Harvard Work Outcomes Research and Cost-effectiveness study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50, 468–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Weersing, V. R., Iyengar, S., Birmaher, B., & Brent, D. (2006). Effectiveness of cogntive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: A benchmarking investigation. Behavior Therapy, 37, 36–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Weersing, V. R., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). Community clinic treatment of depressed youth: Benchmarking usual care against CBT trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 299–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weiller, E., Bisserbe, J.-C., Boyer, P., Lepine, J.-P., & Lecrubier, Y. (1996). Social phobia in general health care: An unrecognized undertreated disabling disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 169–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. World Health Organization. (2001). The World Health Report 2001-Mental Health: New understanding, new hope. Available at http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/
  88. Young, A. S., Klap, R., Sherbourne, C. D., & Wells, K. B. (2001). The quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders in the US. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 55–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General PediatricsChildren’s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations