Confirmed Recall and Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Media in Rural Youth
- First Online:
- 229 Downloads
This study was the first to examine rural youth’s responses to ten television and radio tobacco countermarketing ads aired during a 13-week field campaign conducted in a U.S. Northern Plains state. A post-campaign survey of 391 girls and boys aged 12–17 years and including 58 American Indian youth provided information about their confirmed recall (CR) of the ads; and for recalled ads, their ratings of the ads’ perceived effectiveness (PE). Results were that controlling for age and smoking risk, both American Indian and white girls and boys had the highest CR for the television ad Artery and for the radio ad ABC. Artery shows fatty deposits being squeezed from a deceased smoker’s aorta, and ABC presents a former smoker speaking through his electro-larynx. Among the television ads, PE ratings were highest for the ad Artery in both boys and girls. Among the radio ads, boys rated ABC highest, whereas girls rated Joe DoBoer highest—an ad that discusses mouth lesions that developed from using smokeless tobacco. An analysis of race/ethnicity differences in PE for the ad Artery and ABC indicated American Indian and white youth considered these ads equally effective. These findings indicate certain TV and radio ads depicting graphic health harms from tobacco—especially the TV ad Artery and the radio ad ABC—are highly recalled and perceived as effective by both American Indian and white girls and boys from a rural region. Future research is needed to better understand which individual- and media-level factors increase the likelihood that anti-tobacco ads will be effective in reducing youth tobacco use.
KeywordsTobacco countermarketing Rural youth American Indian youth Gender
- American Association for Public Opinion Research. (2006). Standard definitions: Final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys (4th ed.). Lenexa, KS: American Association for Public Opinion Research.Google Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2004–05. Canberra: ABS. Retrieved August 12, 2007 from the ABS website: www.abs.gov.au
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2005). 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved on Sep. 11, 2007 from the AIHW website: http://www.aihw.gov.au/dataonline.cfm.
- Berkovitz, T. (1996). Political media buying: A brief guide. Retrieved October 16, 2007, from Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government’s Web Site: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/case/3pt/berkovitz.html.
- Brehm, J.W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
- Caraballo, R.S., Yee, S.L., Gfroerer, J.C., & Pechacek, T.F. (2006). Tobacco use among racial and ethnic population subgroups of adolescents in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 3, 1–12.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2006a). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2005. Surveillance Summaries, June 9, 2006. MMWR, 55, 1–108.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2006b). Racial/ethnic differences among youths in cigarette smoking and susceptibility to start smoking—United States, 2002–2004. Surveillance Summaries, December 1, 2006. MMWR, 55, 1275–1277.Google Scholar
- Emery, S., Wakefield, M.A., Terry-McElrath, Y.M., Saffer, H., Szczypka, G., O’Malley, P.M., et al. (2005). Televised state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertising and youth smoking beliefs and behavior in the United States, 1999–2000. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 639–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Farrelly, M. C., Davis, K. C., Yarsevich, J. M., Haviland, M. L., Hersey, J. C., Girlando, B. A., et al. (2002). Getting to the truth: Assessing youths’ reactions to the truth and “Think. Don’t Smoke” tobacco countermarketing campaigns (First Look Report 9). Washington, DC: American Legacy Foundation.Google Scholar
- Flynn, B.S., Worden, J.K., Secker-Walker, R.H., Badger, G.J., & Geller, B.M. (1995). Cigarette smoking prevention effects of mass media and school interventions targeted to gender and age groups. Journal of Health Education, 26, 45–51.Google Scholar
- Health Canada. (2005). 2002 Youth smoking survey—technical report. Retrieved August 22, 2007 from the website: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/pubs/tobac-tabac/yss-etj-2002/index_e.html.
- Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., & Schulenberg, J.E. (2007). Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2006. (NIH Publication No. 07-6202). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
- Little, R.J.A. & Rubin, D.B. (1987). Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. New York: John Wiley. Google Scholar
- National Cancer Institute. (2008). The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Tobacco Control Monograph No. 19. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Humans Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Pub. No. 07-6242.Google Scholar
- Northern Plains Tobacco Prevention Project. (2007). Traditional tobacco use. Website accessed Oct. 2008 at: http://www.aatchb.org/nptpp/TraditionalTobaccoUse/index.html.
- Nunnally, J.C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Sowden, A.J., & Arblaster, L. (1998). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Art. No.: CD001006.Google Scholar
- Wakefield, M., Miller, C., & Roberts, L. (1999). Comparison of the national tobacco campaign with a youth targeted South Australian campaign. In Australia’s National Tobacco Campaign: Evaluation report volume one: Every cigarette is doing you damage. Retrieved on Aug. 11, 2004 from the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care website: http://www.health.gov.au/pubhlth/publicat/document/tobccamp.pdf.