Prevention Science

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 54–65 | Cite as

Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with Low-Income African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

  • Deborah GrossEmail author
  • Christine Garvey
  • Wrenetha Julion
  • Louis Fogg
  • Sharon Tucker
  • Hartmut Mokros


This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2–4 year old children enrolled in seven day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-up, intervention group parents used less corporal punishment and issued fewer commands with their children. Intervention children exhibited fewer behavior problems during observed play and clean-up sessions than controls. Additional group differences were observed when dose was included in the analytic model. Parents who participated in at least 50% of CPP sessions also reported greater improvements in parenting self-efficacy, more consistent discipline, greater warmth, and a decline in child behavior problems when compared to reports from controls. The implications of these results for preventive parent training with low-income African American and Latino parents and the role of intervention dose on parent–child outcomes are discussed.


Parent training Ethnic minority Prevention Preschool 



The authors acknowledge the support of the participating day care centers and parents and the extraordinarily helpful comments of David Henry, Daniel Shaw, David Olds, Lauren Wakschlag, Susan Breitenstein, Alison Ridge, and the anonymous reviewers. This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute for Nursing Research, #R01 NR004085.


  1. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  2. Baumrind, D. (1996). The discipline controversy revisited. Family Relations, 445, 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brestan, E., & Eyberg, S. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 180–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brotman, L. M., Klein, R., Kamboukos, D., Brown, E. J., Coard, S. I., & Sosinsky, L. S. (2003). Preventive intervention for urban, low-income preschoolers at familial risk for conduct problems: A randomized pilot study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 246–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coard, S. I., Wallace, S. A., Stevenson, H. C., & Brotman, L. M. (2004). Towards culturally relevant preventive interventions: The consideration of racial socialization in parent training with African American families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13, 277–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colman, R. A., Hardy, S. A., Albert, M., Raffaelli, M., & Crockett, L. (2006). Early predictors of self-regulation in middle childhood. Infant and Child Development, 15, 421–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (1999). Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high risk sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 631–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conrad, B., Gross, D., Fogg, L., & Ruchala, P. (1992). Maternal confidence, knowledge, and quality of mother–toddler interaction: A preliminary study. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 353–362.Google Scholar
  9. Corcoran, M., & Adams, T. (1997). Race, sex, and the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In D. J. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 461–517). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Doctoroff, G. L., & Arnold, D. (2004). Parent-rated externalizing behavior in preschoolers: The predictive utility of structured interviews, teacher reports, and classroom observations. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 813–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dumas, J., & Wahler, R. (1983). Predictors of treatment outcome in parent training: Mother insularity and socioeconomic disadvantage. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 301–313.Google Scholar
  12. Dumas, J., Prinz, R. J., Smith, E. P., & Laughlin, J. (1999). The Early Alliance prevention trial: An integrated set of interventions to promote competence and reduce risk for conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 37–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eyberg, S., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory—Revised: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  14. Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., et al. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination. Prevention Science, 6, 151–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Forehand, R., & Kotchick, B. (1996). A wake-up call for parent training. Behavior Therapy, 27, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frias-Armenta, M., & McCloskey, L. (1998). Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Giesbrecht, F. G., & Burns, J. C. (1985). Two-stage analysis based on a mixed model: Large-sample asymptotic theory and small-sample simulation results. Biometrics, 41, 477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gorman, J. C., & Balter, L. (1997). Culturally sensitive parent education: A critical review of quantitative research. Review of Educational Research, 67, 339–369.Google Scholar
  19. Gottfredson, D., Kumpfer, K., Polizzi-Fox, D., Wilson, D., Puryear, V., Beatty, P., et al. (2006). The Strengthening Washington DC Families Project: A randomized effectiveness trial of family-based prevention. Prevention Science, 7, 57–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gross, D., & Rocissano, L. (1988). Maternal confidence in toddlerhood: Its measurement for research and clinical practice. Nurse Practitioner, 13, 19–22, 28–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gross, D., Conrad, B., Fogg, L., & Wothke, W. (1994). A longitudinal model of maternal self-efficacy, depression, and difficult temperament during toddlerhood. Research in Nursing & Health, 17, 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gross, D., Fogg, L., & Tucker, S. (1995). The efficacy of parent training for promoting positive parent–toddler relationships. Research in Nursing & Health, 18, 489–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gross, D., Julion, W., & Fogg, L. (2001). What motivates participation and drop-out among low-income urban families of color in a prevention intervention? Family Relations, 50, 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gross, D., Fogg, L., Webster-Stratton, C., Garvey, C., Julion, W., & Grady, J. (2003). Parent training with multi-ethnic families of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 261–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gross, D., Fogg, L., Young, M., Ridge, A., Cowell, J., Sivan, A., et al. (2007a). Reliability and validity of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory with African American and Latino parents of young children. Research in Nursing & Health, 30, 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gross, D., Garvey, C., Julion, W., & Fogg, L. (2007b). Preventive parent training with low-income, ethnic minority parents of preschoolers. In J. M. Briesmeister & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Handbook of parent training: Helping parents prevent and solve problem behaviors (3rd ed., pp. 5–24). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., Lonczak, H. S., Oxford, M. L., Harachi, T. W., & Catalano, R. (2002). Predictors of participation in parenting workshops. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heinrichs, N., Bertram, H., Kuschel, A., & Hahlweg, K. (2005). Parent recruitment and retention in a universal prevention program for child behavior and emotional problems: Barriers to research and program participation. Prevention Science, 6, 275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Horn, I. B., Cheng, T. L., & Joseph, J. (2004). Discipline in the African American community: The impact of socioeconomic status on beliefs and practices. Pediatrics, 113, 1236–1241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Irvine, A., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., Metzler, C., & Ary, D. (1999). The effectiveness of a parenting skills program for parents of middle school students in small communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 811–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kazdin, A. (1997). Parent management training: Evidence, outcomes, and issues. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1349–1356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koniak-Griffin, D., & Verzemnieks, J. (1995). The relationship between parental ratings of child behaviors, interaction, and home environments. Maternal Child Nursing, 23, 44–56.Google Scholar
  33. Kenward, M. G., & Roger, J. H. (1997). Small sample inference for fixed effects from restricted maximum likelihood. Biometrics, 53, 983–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lundahl, B., Risser, H. J., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2006). A meta-analysis of parent training: Moderators and follow-up effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 86–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCabe, K. M., Clark, R., & Barnett, D. (1999). Family protective factors among urban African American youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 137–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M., Garland, A. F., Lau, A. S., & Chavez, G. (2005). The GANA program: A tailoring approach to adapting Parent Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 111–129.Google Scholar
  37. McMahon, R. (1999). Parent training. In S. Russ & T. Ollendick (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapies with children and families (pp. 153–180). New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  38. Morawska, A., & Sanders, M. (2006). Self-administered behavioural family intervention for parents of toddlers: Effectiveness and dissemination. Behavior Research and Therapy, 44, 1839–1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Myers, H., Alvy, K., Arrington, A., Richardson, M. A., Marigna, M., Huff, R., et al. (1992). The impact of a parent training program on inner-city African-American families. Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 132–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Orrell-Valente, J., Pinderhughes, E., Valente, E., Laird, R., & Conduct Problems Prevention Group (1999). If it’s offered, will they come? Influences on parents’ participation in a community-based conduct problems prevention program. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 753–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patterson, G. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  42. Perrino, T., Coatsworth, J., Briones, E., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2001). Initial engagement in parent-centered preventive interventions: A family systems perspective. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rassler, S. (2002). Statistical matching: A frequentist theory, practical applications, and alternative Bayesian approaches. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. Reid, J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Beauchaine, T. (2001). Parent training in head start: A comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers. Prevention Science, 2, 209–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Baydar, N. (2004). Halting the development of conduct problems in Head Start children: The effects of parent training. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 33, 279–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rubin, D. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sanders, M. (2007). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A public health approach to parenting support. In J. M. Briesmeister & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Handbook of parent training: Helping parents prevent and solve problem behaviors (3rd ed., pp. 203–233). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Schoenwald, S. K., Carter, R. W., Chapman, J. E., & Sheidow, A. J. (2008). Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after Multisystemic Therapy. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35, 379–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singer, J. B., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Strayhorn, J. M., & Weidman, C. S. (1991). Follow-up one year after parent–child interaction training: Effects on behavior of preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 138–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tucker, S., Gross, D., Fogg, L., Delaney, K., & Lapporte, R. (1998). The long-term efficacy of a behavioral parent training intervention for families with 2-year-olds. Research in Nursing & Health, 21, 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Webster-Stratton, C. (1998a). Parent training with low-income families: Promoting parental engagement through a collaborative approach. In J. R. Lutzker (Ed.), Handbook of child abuse research and treatment (pp. 183–209). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  53. Webster-Stratton, C. (1998b). Preventing conduct problems in Head Start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 715–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zambrana, R., & Logie, L. (2000). Latino child health: Need for inclusion in the US national discourse. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1827–1833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah Gross
    • 4
    Email author
  • Christine Garvey
    • 1
  • Wrenetha Julion
    • 1
  • Louis Fogg
    • 1
  • Sharon Tucker
    • 2
  • Hartmut Mokros
    • 3
  1. 1.Rush University College of NursingChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Rutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA
  4. 4.Johns Hopkins University, Schools of Nursing and MedicineDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations