School Climate and Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes Associated with Implementation of the Positive Action Program: A Diffusion of Innovations Model
- 2k Downloads
Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school’s administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school’s climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs’ curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers’ attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers’ beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers’ perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.
KeywordsFidelity Primary prevention Elementary Children
Two of the authors, Flay and Allred, are married.
This project was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, grant #R01-DA13474.
- Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Bandalos, D. L., & Finney, S. J. (2001). Item parceling issues in structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), New developments and techniques in structural equation modeling (pp. 269–296). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Chen, H.-T. (1998). Theory-driven evaluations. In A. J. Reynolds & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Advances in educational productivity: Evaluation research for educational productivity, (vol. 7). US: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Harachi, T. W., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. B. (1999). Opening the black box: Using process evaluation measures to assess implementation and theory building. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 711–731. doi: 10.1023/A:1022194005511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoy, W., Tarter, C., & Kottkamp, R. (1991). Open schools, healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of scientific research. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Slavin, R. E., & Fashola, O. S. (1998). Show me the evidence: Proven and promising programs for America’s schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
- Social and Character Development Research Consortium (2004). Social and character development research program evaluation instrument. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- State of Hawaii Department of Education Systems of Accountability. (2006). School accountability: School status and improvement report. Retrieved 11/28, 2006, from http://arch.k12.hi.us/school/ssir/ssir.html#.