Advertisement

Prevention Science

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 1–19 | Cite as

Trends in Recall and Appraisal of Anti-Smoking Advertising Among American Youth: National Survey Results, 1997–2001

  • Lloyd D. Johnston
  • Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath
  • Patrick M. O’Malley
  • Melanie Wakefield
Article

Abstract

Public health efforts to reduce the harms related to tobacco use currently include a significant emphasis on anti-smoking media campaigns. This paper provides (a) data on the overall extent of exposure to anti-smoking media among American youth from 1997 to 2001, (b) an appraisal of general youth reactions to such advertising, and (c) an examination of how exposure levels and reactions vary by socio-demographic characteristics. Data were obtained from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing nationwide study of youth. Data were collected each year from nationally representative separate and nonoverlapping school samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students (N = 29,724; 24,639; and 12,138, respectively). Self-reported levels of recalled exposure to both electronic and print anti-smoking advertising were measured, as well as the judged impact and perceived exaggeration of such advertising. Data indicate that significant increases in overall exposure to anti-smoking advertising occurred over the study time period. These increases were associated with (a) increases in the self-reported likelihood that anti-smoking advertising diminished the probability of individual smoking behaviors, and (b) increases in the perceived level to which anti-smoking advertising exaggerates the risks associated with smoking. Further, these trends were significantly associated with various characteristics—most notably, ethnicity, smoking behaviors, and residence in a state with an ongoing tobacco-control program having a media component.

anti-smoking advertising youth smoking prevention anti-tobacco media campaigns 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. J. G., Bachman, L. D., Johnston, & O’Malley, P. M. (2001).Themonitoring the future project after 27 years: Design andprocedures. (Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 54). AnnArbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  2. Bauer, U., Johnson, T., Pallentino, J., Hopkins, R., McDaniel, W., & R. G., Brooks (1999). Tobacco use among middle and high school students—Florida, 1998 and 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48, 248–253.Google Scholar
  3. Bauer, U., T. M., Johnson, R. S., Hopkins, & R. G., Brooks (2000). Changes in youth cigarette use and intentions following implementation of a tobacco control program. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 723–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. K. E., Bauman, LaPrelle, J., J. D., Brown, G. G., Koch, & C. A., Padgett (1991). The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: Results of a field experiment. American Journal of Public Health, 81(5), 597–604.Google Scholar
  5. Biener, L. (2002). Anti-tobacco advertisements by Massachusetts and Philip Morris: What teenagers think. Tobacco Control, 11(Suppl II), ii43–ii46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biener, L., & T. M., Taylor (2002). The continuing importance of emotion in tobacco control media campaigns: A response to Hastings and MacFadyen. Tobacco Control, 11, 75–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biener, L., McCallum-Keeler, G., & A. L., Nyman (2000). Adults’ response to Massachusetts anti-tobacco television advertisements: Impact of viewer and advertisement characteristics. Tobacco Control, 9, 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biglan, A., D. V., Ary, Smolkowski, K., Duncan, T., & Black, C. (2000). A randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control, 9, 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. N. J., Briton, T. W., Clark, Krakow, M., Soldz, S., A. K., Baker, & Posner, J. (1997). Adolescent tobacco use in Massachusetts:Trends among public school students, 1984–1996. Boston, MA:Massachusetts Department of Public Health.Google Scholar
  10. M. C., Farrelly, C. G., Healton, K. C., Davis, Messeri, P., J. C., Hersey, & M. L., Haviland (2002). Getting to the truth: evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. American Journal of Public Health, 92(6), 901–907.Google Scholar
  11. B. R., Flay, B. R., Brannon, C. A., Johnson, W. B., Hansen, A. L., Ulene, D. A., Whitneysaltiel, L. R., Gleason, Sussman, S., M. D., Gavin, K. M., Glowacz, D. F., Sobol, & Spiegel,D. C. (1988). The television, school and family smoking prevention and cessation project. 1. Theoretical basis and program development. Preventive Medicine, 17, 585–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. B. R., Flay, T. Q., Miller, Hedeker, D., Siddiqui, O., C. F., Britton, B. R., Brannon, C. A., Johnson, W. B., Hansen, Sussman, S., & Dent, C. (1995). The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VII. Student outcomes and mediating variables. Preventive Medicine, 24, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. B. S., Flynn, J. K., Worden, Secker-Walker, R. H., Badger,G. J., B. M., Geller, & M. C., Costanza (1992). Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health, 82(6), 827–834.Google Scholar
  14. B. S., Flynn, J. K., Worden, Secker-Walker, R. H., P. L., Pirie, Badger, G. J., J. H., Carpenter, & B. M., Geller (1994). Mass media and school interventions for cigarette smoking prevention: Effects 2 years after completion. American Journal of Public Health, 84(7), 1148–1150.Google Scholar
  15. Hafstad, A., L. E., Aaro, Engeland, A., Andersen, A., Langmark, F., & Stray-Pedersen, B. (1997). Provocative appeals in anti-smoking mass media campaigns targeting adolescents—The accumulated effect of multiple exposures. Health Education Research, 12(2), 227–236.Google Scholar
  16. J. E., Harris, G. N., Connolly, Brooks, D., & Davis, B. (1996). Cigarette smoking before and after an excise tax increase and an anti-smoking campaign—Massachusetts, 1990–1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 45, 996–1070.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, D., Chapman, S., & Donovan, R. (1998). The return of scare tactics. Tobacco Control, 7, 5–8.Google Scholar
  18. Hu, T., H. Y., Sung, & T. E., Keeler (1995). Reducing cigarette consumption in California: Tobacco taxes vs. an anti-smoking media campaign. American Journal of Public Health, 85(9), 1218–1222.Google Scholar
  19. C. A., Johnson, M. A., Pentz, & M. D., Weber (1990). Relativeeffectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuseprevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal ofConsulting & Clinical Psychology, 58, 447–456.Google Scholar
  20. L. D., Johnston, O’Malley, P. M., & J. G., Bachman (2002). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2001. Volume 1: Secondary school students (NIH PublicationNo. 02-5106). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  21. W. N., Lee, & M. F., Callcott (1994). Billboard advertising: Acomparison of vice products across ethnic groups. Journal ofBusiness Research, 30, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lewit, E., Coate, D., & Grossman, M. (1981). The effects of government regulation on teenage smoking. Journal of Law and Economics, 24, 545–569.Google Scholar
  23. R. A., Logan, & D. R., Longo (1999). Rethinking anti-smoking media campaigns: Two generations of research and issues for the next. Journal of Health Care Finance, 25(4), 77–90.Google Scholar
  24. R. M., Mayberry, & P. A., Price (1993). Targeting blacks incigarette billboard advertising: Results from down South. HealthValues: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education & Promotion, 17(1), 28–35.Google Scholar
  25. McKenna, J., Gutierrez, K., & McCall, K. (2000). Strategies for an effective youth counter-marketing program: Recommendations from commercial marketing experts. Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 6(3), 7–13.Google Scholar
  26. A. N., Mudde, & De Vries, H. (1999). The reach and effectiveness of a national mass media-led smoking cessation campaign in the Netherlands. American Journal of Public Health, 89(3), 346–350.Google Scholar
  27. D. M., Murray, C. L., Perry, Griffin, G., K. C., Harty, Jacobs,D. R., Schmid, L., Daly, K., & Pallonen, U. (1992). Results from a statewide approach to adolescent tobacco use prevention. Preventive Medicine, 21, 449–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. D. M., Murray, A. V., Prokhorov, & K. C., Harty (1994). Effects of a statewide antismoking campaign on mass media messages and smoking beliefs. Preventive Medicine, 23, 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oregon Department of Human Services. (2003). Make Oregonhealthier: Saving lives and saving dollars. Tobacco prevention andeducation in Oregon. Program report 2001–2003. Salem, OR: Departmentof Human Services.Google Scholar
  30. Pechmann, C. (1997). Does antismoking advertising combat underagesmoking? A review of past practices and research. In M. E. Goldberg,M. Fishbein, S. Middlestadt (Eds.), Social marketing:Theoretical and practical perspectives (pp. 189–216). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates.Google Scholar
  31. Pechmann, C., & Reibling, E.T. (2000). Anti-smoking advertising campaigns targeting youth: Case studies from USA and Canada. Tobacco Control, 9(Suppl II), ii0–ii13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pechmann, C., Zhao, G., M. E., Goldberg, & Reibling,E. T. (2003). What to convey in antismoking ads for adolescents? Theuse of protection motivation theory to identify effective messagethemes. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M. A., Pentz, J. H., Dwyer, & D. P., MacKinnon (1989a). Amulticommunity trial for primary prevention of adolescent drugabuse. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 3259–3266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. M. A., Pentz, D. P., MacKinnon, J. H., Dwyer, Wang, E. Y. I., W. B., Hansen, B. R., Flay, & C. A., Johnson (1989b). Longitudinal effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project on regular and experimental smoking in adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 18, 304–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. C. L., Perry, S. H., Kelder, D. M., Murray, & K. I., Klepp (1992). Communitywide smoking prevention: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. American Journal of Public Health, 82(9), 1210–1216.Google Scholar
  36. J. P., Pierce, W. S., Choi, E. A., Gilpin, A. J., Farkas, & Merritt,R. K. (1996). Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health Psychology, 15, 355–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. J. P., Pierce, Emery, S., & Gilpin, E. (2002). The California tobacco control program: A long-term health communication project. In R. C. Hornik (Ed.), Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change(pp. 97–114). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  38. W. J., Popham, L. D., Potter, M. A., Hetrick, Muthén, L. K., J. M., Duerr, & M. D., Johnson (1994). Effectiveness of the California 1990–1991 tobacco education media campaign. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10(6), 319–326.Google Scholar
  39. T. E., Raghunathan, P. W., Solenberger, & van Hoewyk, J. (2002). IVEware: Imputation and variance estimation software. Ann Arbor, MI: Survey Methodology Program, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  40. Schneider, L., Klein, B., & Murphy, K. (1981). Government regulation of cigarette health information. Journal of Law and Economics, 24, 575–612.Google Scholar
  41. Siegel, M., & Biener, L. (2000). The impact of an antismoking media campaign on progression to established smoking: Results of a longitudinal youth study. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 380–386.Google Scholar
  42. Siegel, M., & Biener, L. (2002). The impact of antismoking mediacampaigns on progression to established smoking: Results of alongitudinal youth study in Massachusetts. In R. C. Hornik (Ed.), Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change (pp. 115–130). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates .Google Scholar
  43. Sly, D., G. R., Heald, & Ray S. (2001a). The Florida “Truth” anti-tobacco media evaluation: Design, first year results and implications for planning future media evaluations. Tobacco Control, 10, 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. D. F., Sly, R. S., Hopkins, Trapido, E., & Ray, S. (2001b). Influence of a counteradvertising media campaign on initiation of smoking: The Florida “truth” campaign. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 233–238.Google Scholar
  45. D. F., Sly, Trapido, E., & Ray, S. (2002). Evidence of the dose effects of an antitobacco counteradvertising campaign. Preventive Medicine, 35, 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. K. H., Smith, & M. A., Stutts (1999). Factors that influence adolescents to smoke. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 33(2), 321–357.Google Scholar
  47. Terry-McElrath, Y., Wakefield, M., Ruel, E., G. I., Balch, Emery, S.,Szczypka, G., Clegg-Smith, K., & Flay, B. (in press). The effect ofanti-smoking advertisement characteristics on youth appraisal andengagement. Journal of HealthCommunication.Google Scholar
  48. Wakefield, M., Durrant, R., Terry-McElrath, Y., Ruel, E., Balch, G., Anderson, S., Hastings, G., Szczypka, G., & Flay, B. (2003a). Appraisal of anti-smoking advertising by youth at risk for regular smoking: A comparative study in the United States, Australia, and Britain. Tobacco Control, 12(Suppl 11), ii82–ii86.Google Scholar
  49. Wakefield, M., Flay, B., Nichter, M., & Giovino, G. (2003b). Effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking: A review. Journal of Health Communication, 8, 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wakefield, M., Flay, B., Nichter, M., & Giovino, G. (2003c). Role of the media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking. Addiction, 98(Suppl 1), 79–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. K. E., Warner (1977). The effects of the anti-smoking campaign on cigarette consumption. American Journal of Public Health, 67(7), 645–650.Google Scholar
  52. K. E., Warner (1979). Clearing the airwaves: The cigarette ad ban revisited. Policy Analysis, 5, 435–450.Google Scholar
  53. M. A., Winkelby, S. P., Fortmann, & Rockhill, B. (1993). Cigarette smoking trends in adolescents and young adults: The Stanford Five City Project. Preventive Medicine, 22, 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lloyd D. Johnston
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath
    • 1
  • Patrick M. O’Malley
    • 1
  • Melanie Wakefield
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn Arbor
  2. 2.Center for Behavioral Research in CancerThe Cancer Council VictoriaCarltonAustralia
  3. 3.Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations