Prevention Science

, 7:127 | Cite as

Clustering of Health-Related Behaviors and Their Determinants: Possible Consequences for School Health Interventions

  • Carin H. Wiefferink
  • Louk Peters
  • Femke Hoekstra
  • Geert Ten Dam
  • Goof J. Buijs
  • Theo G. W. M. Paulussen
Article

Characterizing school health promotion is its category-by-category approach, in which each separate health-related behavior is addressed independently. Such an approach creates a risk that extra-curricular activities become overloaded, and that teaching staff are distracted by continuous innovations. Within the health promotion sector there are thus increasing calls for an integrative approach to health-related behaviors. However, a meaningful integrative approach to different lifestyles will be possible only if there is some clustering of individual health-related behaviors and if health-related behaviors have a minimum number of determinants in common. This systematic review aims to identify to what extent the four health-related behaviors smoking, alcohol abuse, safe sex and healthy nutrition cluster; and how their determinants are associated. Potentially modifiable determinants that offer clues for an integrative approach of school health-promotion programs are identified. Besides, the direction in which health educators should look for a more efficient instructional design is indicated.

KEY WORDS:

health-related behaviors clustering determinants school health interventions smoking alcohol abuse safe sex nutrition 

REFERENCES

  1. Aarø, L. E., Laberg, J. C., & Wold, B. (1995). Health behaviors among adolescents: Toward a hypothesis of two dimensions. Health Education Research, 10(1), 83–93.Google Scholar
  2. Adalbjarnardottir, S., & Hafsteinsson, L. G. (2001). Adolescents’ perceived parenting styles and their substance use: Concurrent and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(4), 401–423.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amaro, H., Blake, S. M., Schwartz, P. M., & Flinchbaugh, L. J. (2001). Developing theory-based substance abuse prevention programs for young adolescent girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(3), 256–293.Google Scholar
  5. Avenevoli, S., & Merikangas, K. R. (2003). Familial influences on adolescent smoking. Addiction, 98(Suppl 1), 1–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bachanas, P. J., Morris, M. K., Lewis-Gess, J. K., Sarett-Cuasay, E. J., Flores, A. L., Sirl, K. S., & Sawyer, M. K. (2002). Psychological adjustment, substance use, HIV knowledge, and risky sexual behavior in at-risk minority females: Developmental differences during adolescence. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27(4), 373–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Backman, D. R., Haddad, E. H., Lee, J. W., Johnston, P. K., & Hodgkin, G. E. (2002). Psychosocial Predictors of Healthful Dietary Behavior in Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 34, 184–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice—Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Bauman, K. E., & Ennet, S. T. (1996). On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: Commonly neglected considerations. Addiction, 91(2), 185–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beal, A. C., Ausiello, J., & Perrin, J. M. (2001). Social influences on health-risk behaviors among minority middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 474–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, M. H. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.Google Scholar
  12. Beckman, L. J., & Harvey, S. M. (1996). Factors affecting the consistent use of barrier methods of contraception. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 88(3 Suppl), 65S-71S.Google Scholar
  13. Belcher, H. M., & Shinitzky, H. E. (1998). Substance abuse in children: Prediction, protection, and prevention. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 152(10), 952–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ben-Zur, H., Breznitz, S., Wardi, N., & Berzon, Y. (2000). Denial of HIV/AIDS and preventive behavior among Israeli adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 23(2), 157–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Berg, M. C., Jonsson, I., & Conner, M. T. (2000). Understanding choice of milk and bread for breakfast among Swedish children aged 11–15 years: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Appetite, 34, 5–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berg, M. C., Jonsson, I., Conner, M. T., & Lissner, L. (2002). Relation between breakfast food choices and knowledge of dietary fat and fiber among Swedish schoolchildren. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 199–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Birch, L. L., & Fisher, J. O. (1998). Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 101, 539–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blum, R. W., Beuhring, T., Shew, M. L., Bearinger, L. H., Sieving, R. E., & Resnick, M. D. (2000). The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 90(12), 1879–1884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boyer, C. B., Shafer, M. A., Wibbelsman, C. J., Seeberg, D., Teitle, E., & Lovell, N. (2000). Associations of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors with sexual risk and sexually transmitted diseases in teen clinic patients. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(2), 102–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bronfenbrenner, M. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brooks, T. L., Harris, S. K., Thrall, J. S., & Woods, E. R. (2002). Association of adolescent risk behaviors with mental health symptoms in high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 240–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18, 32–42.Google Scholar
  23. Burke, V., Milligan, R. A. K., Beilin, L. J., Dunbar, D., Spencer, M., Balde, E., & Gracey, M. P. (1997). Clustering of health-related behaviors among 18-year-old Australians. Preventive Medicine, 26, 724–733.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carvajal, S. C., Wiatrek, D. E., Evans, R. I., Knee, C. R., & Nash, S. G. (2000). Psychosocial determinants of the onset and escalation of smoking: Cross-sectional and prospective findings in multiethnic middle school samples. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(4), 255–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., & Sherman, S. J. (2000). The natural history of cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood in a midwestern community sample: Multiple trajectories and their psychosocial correlates. Health Psychology, 19(3), 223–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi, W. S., Ahluwalia, J. S., Harris, K. J., & Okuyemi, K. (2002). Progression to established smoking: The influence of tobacco marketing. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(4), 228–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choi, W. S., Gilpin, E. A., Farkas, A. J., & Pierce, J. P. (2001). Determining the probability of future smoking among adolescents. Addiction, 96(2), 313–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coker, J. K., & Borders, L. D. (2001). An analysis of environmental and social factors affecting adolescent problem drinking. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(2), 200–208.Google Scholar
  29. Colon, R. M., Wiatrek, D. E., & Evans, R. I. (2000). The relationship between psychosocial factors and condom use among African-American adolescents. Adolescence, 35(139), 559–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Contento, I. R., Michela, J. L., & Williams, S. S. (1995). Adolescent food choice criteria: Role of weight and dieting status. Appetite, 25, 51–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cooper, M. L. (2002). Alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among college students and youth: Evaluating the evidence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, supplement, 14, 101–17.Google Scholar
  32. Cooper, M. L., Wood, P. K., Orcutt, H. K., & Albino, A.(2003). Personality and the predisposition to engage in risky or problem behaviors during adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 390–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Croll, J. K., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2001). Healthy eating: What does it mean to adolescents? Journal of Nutrition Education, 33, 193–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Crosby, R. A., & Yarber, W. L. (2001). Perceived versus actual knowledge about correct condom use among U.S. adolescents: Results from a national study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28(5), 415–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Crosby, R. A., DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., & Harrington, K. (2002a). HIV/STD prevention benefits of living in supportive families: A prospective analysis of high risk African-American female teens. American Journal of Health Promotion, 16(3), 142–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Crosby, R. A., DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Cobb, B. K., Harrington, K., Davies, S. L., Hook, E. W., & Oh, M. K. (2002b). Condom use and correlates of African American adolescent females’ infrequent communication with sex partners about preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Health Education and Behavior, 29(2), 219–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cullen, K. W., Koehly, L. M., Anderson, C., Baranowski, T., Prokhorov, A., Basen-Engquist, K., Wetter, D., & Hergenroeder, A. (1999). Gender differences in chronic disease risk behaviors through the transition out of high school. American journal of preventive medicine, 17, 1–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. D’Amico, E. J., Metrik, J., McCarthy, D. M., Appelbaum, M., Frissell, K. C., & Brown, S. A. (2001). Progression into and out of binge drinking among high school students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 341–349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Darling, N., & Cumsille, P. (2003). Theory, measurement, and methods in the study of family influences on adolescent smoking. Addiction, 98(Suppl 1), 21–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Van Oost, P. (1998). family members’ influence on decision making about food: Differences in perception and relationship with healthy eating. American journal of health promotion, 12, 73–81.Google Scholar
  41. Derzon, J. H., & Lipsey, M. W. (1999). Predicting tobacco use to age 18: A synthesis of longitudinal research. Addiction, 94(7), 995–1006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R., Sionean, C., Cobb, B. K., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E. W., & Kim Oh, M. (2001). Parental monitoring: Association with adolescents’ risk behaviors. Pediatrics, 107(6), 1363–1368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dilorio, C., Dudley, W. N., Kelly, M., Soet, J. E., Mbwara, J., & Sharpe Potter, J. (2001). Social cognitive correlates of sexual experience and condom use among 13- through 15-year-old adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(3), 208–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. DuRant, R. H., & Smith, J. A. (1999). Adolescent tobacco use and cessation. Primary Care, 26(3), 553–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eertmans, A., Baeyens, F., & Wechsler, H. (2001). Food likes and their relative importance in human eating behavior: Review and preliminary suggestions for health promotion. health education research, 16, 443–456.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eissenberg, T., & Balster, R. L. (2000). Initial tobacco use episodes in children and adolescents: Current knowledge, future directions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 59(suppl 1), S41–S60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ellickson, P. L., McGuigan, K. A., & Klein, D. J. (2001a). Predictors of late-onset smoking and cessation over 10 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(2), 101–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ellickson, P. L., Tucker, J. S., Klein, D. J., & McGuigan, K. A. (2001b). Prospective risk factors for alcohol use in late adolescence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(6), 773–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Epstein, J. A., Griffin, K. W., & Botvin, G. J. (2000). A model of smoking among inner-city adolescents: The role of personal competence and perceived social benefits of smoking. Preventive Medicine, 31(2), 107–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fahs, P. S., Smith, B. E., Atav, A. S., Britten, M. X., Collins, M. S., Morgan, L. C., & Spencer, G. A. (1999). Integrative research review of risk behaviors among adolescents in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(4), 230–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferdinand, R. F., Bluem, M., & Verhulst, F. C. (2001). Psychopathology in adolescence predicts substance use in young adulthood. Addiction, 96(6), 861–870.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Flay, B. R. (2002). Positive youth development requires comprehensive health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26(6), 407–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Flay, B. R., & Petraitis, J. (1994). The theory of triadic influence: A new theory of health behavior with implications for preventive interventions. Advances in Medical Sociology, 4, 19–44.Google Scholar
  54. Flay, B. R., Phil, D., Hu, F. B., & Richardson, J. (1998). Psychosocial predictors of different stages of cigarette smoking among high school students. Preventive Medicine, 27(5 Pt 2), A9–A18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Flisher, A. J., Kramer, R. A., Hoven, C. W., King, R. A., Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Gould, M. S., Greenwald, S., Lahey, B. B., Regier, D. A., Schwab-Stone, M., & Shaffer, D. (2000). Risk behavior in a community sample of children and adolescents. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 881–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gage, A. J. (1998). Sexual activity and contraceptive use: The components of the decision-making process. Studies in Family Planning, 29(2), 154–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gillman, M. W., Frazier, A. L., Rockett, H. R., Camargo, C. A. J., Field, A. E., Berkey, C. S., & Colditz, G. A. (2000). Family dinner and diet quality among older children and adolescents. Archives of Family Medicine, 9, 235–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Goldberg, J. H., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., & Millstein, S. G. (2002). Beyond invulnerability: The importance of benefits in adolescents’ decision to drink alcohol. Health Psychology, 21(5), 477–484.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Greene, K., Krcmar, M., Walters, L. H., Rubin, D. L., Hale, J., & Hale, L. (2000). Targeting adolescent risk-taking behaviors: The contributions of egocentrism and sensation-seeking. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 439–461.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Griffin, K. W., Scheier, L. M., Botvin, G. J., & Diaz, T. (2000). Ethnic and gender differences in psychosocial risk, protection, and adolescent alcohol use. Prevention Science, 1(4), 199–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gullone, E., & Moore, S. (2000). Adolescent risk-taking and the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 393–407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gutierrez, L., Oh, H. J., & Gillmore, M. R. (2000). Toward an understanding of (em)power(ment) for HIV/AIDS prevention with adolescent women. Sex Roles, 42(7–8), 581–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Halpern-Felsher, B., Millstein, S. G., & Ellen, J. M. (1996). Relationship of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior: A review and analysis of findings? Journal of Adolescent Health, 19(5), 331–336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hanna, E. Z., Yi, H., Dufour, M. C., & Whitmore, C. C. (2001). The relationship of early-onset regular smoking to alcohol use, depression, illicit drug use, and other risky behaviors during early adolescence: Results from the youth supplement to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13, 265–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Henderson, M., Wight, D., Raab, G., Abraham, C., Buston, K., Hart, G., & Scott, S. (2002). Heterosexual risk behavior among young teenagers in Scotland. Journal of Adolescence, 25(5), 483–494.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hendrickx, K., Lodewijckx, E., Van Royen, P., & Denekens, J. (2002). Sexual behavior of second generation Moroccan immigrants balancing between traditional attitudes and safe sex. Patient Education and Counseling, 47(2), 89–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hine, D. W., McKenzie-Richer, A., Lewko, J., Tilleczek, K., & Perreault, L. (2002). A comparison of the mediational properties of four adolescent smoking expectancy measures. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(3), 187–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoglund, D., Samuelson, G., & Mark, A. (1998). Food habits in Swedish adolescents in relation to socioeconomic conditions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 784–789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Irwin, C. E., & Millstein, S. G. (1986). Biopsychosocial correlates of risk-taking behaviors during adolescence: Can the physician intervene? Journal of Adolescence Health Care, 7, S82–S96.Google Scholar
  70. Irwin, C. E., Igra, V., Eyre, S., & Millstein, S. (1997). Risk-taking behavior in adolescents: The paradigm. Annals New York Academy Sciences, 28, 1–35.Google Scholar
  71. Jemmott, J. B., & Jemmott, L. S. (2000). HIV risk reduction behavioral interventions with heterosexual adolescents. AIDS, 14(Suppl 2), S40–S52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jessor, R. (1991). Risk behavior in adolescence: A psychosocial framework for understanding and action. Journal of Adolescent health, 2, 597–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Johnson, P. B., & Johnson, H. L. (1999). Cultural and familial influences that maintain the negative meaning of alcohol. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60(suppl. 13), 79–83.Google Scholar
  74. Karvonen, S., Abel, T., Calmonte, R., & Rimpelä, A. (2000). Patterns of health-related behavior and their cross-cultural validity—A comparative study on two populations of young people. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin, 45, 35–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kirby, D. (2002). Antecedents of adolescent initiation of sex, contraceptive use, and pregnancy. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26(6), 473–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kobus, K. (2003). Peers and adolescent smoking. Addiction, 98(Suppl 1), 37–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kodjo, C. M., & Klein, J. D. (2002). Prevention and risk of adolescent substance abuse. The role of adolescents, families, and communities. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 49(2), 257–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Koivisto Hursti, U. K. (1999). Factors influencing children’s food choice. Annals of Medicine, 31, 26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kotchick, B. A., Shaffer, A., & Forehand, R. (2001). Adolescent sexual risk behavior: A multi-system perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(4), 493–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kremers, S. P. J., Brug, J., De Vries, H., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2003) Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption. Appetite, 41, 43–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kumpulainen, K. (2000). Psychiatric symptoms and deviance in early adolescence predict heavy alcohol use 3 years later. Addiction, 95(12), 1847–1857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. La Greca, A. N., Prinstein, M. J., & Fetter, M. D. (2001). Adolescent peer crowd affiliation: Linkages with health-risk behaviors and close friendships. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(3), 131–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Laukkanen, E., Shemeikka, S., Notkola, I., Koivumaa-Honkanen, H., & Nissinen, A. (2002). Externalizing and internalizing problems at school as signs of health-damaging behavior and incipient marginalization. Health Promotion International, 17(2), 139–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Li, X., Stanton, B., & Feigelman, S. (2000). Impact of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk behavior over 4 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 49–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Little, L. A., Kelder, S. H., Perry, C. L., & Klepp, K. I. (1995). Covariance of adolescent health behaviors: A multivariate, developmental perspective. Preventive Medicine, 19, 134–146.Google Scholar
  86. Lonczak, H. S., Huang, B., Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Abbott, R. D., Ryan, J. A., & Kosterman, R. (2001). The social predictors of adolescent alcohol misuse: A test of the Social Development Model. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(2), 179–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Maes, L., & Lievens, J. (2003) Can the school make a difference? A multilevel analysis of adolescent risk and health behavior. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 517–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Masui, R., Sallis, J. F., Berry, C. C., Broyles, S. L., Elder, J. P., & Nader, P. R. (2002). The relationship between health beliefs and behaviors and dietary intake in early adolescence. Journal of American Dietary Association, 102, 421–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Maxwell, K. A. (2002). Friends: The role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(4), 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mayhew, K., Flay, B. R., & Mott, J. A. (2000). Stages in the development of adolescent smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 59(suppl 1), S61–S81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McGee, R., & Williams, S. (2000). Does low self-esteem predict health-compromising behaviors among adolescents? Journal of Adolescence, 23, 569–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Hannan, P. J., Story, M., Croll, J., & Perry, C. (2003). Family meal patterns: Associations with sociodemographic characteristics and improved dietary intake among adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103, 317–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Perry, C., & Casey, M. A. (1999). Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: Findings from focus-group discussions with adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Assocation, 99, 929–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Resnick, M. D., & Blum, R. W. (1996). Correlates of inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Preventive medicine, 25, 497–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. O’dea, J. A. (2003). Why do kids eat healthful food? Perceived benefits of and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among children and adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(4), 497–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Oman, R. F., McLeroy, K. R., Vesely, S., Aspy, C. B., Smith, D. W., & Penn, D. A. (2002). An adolescent age group approach to examining youth risk behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 16(3), 167–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Orlando, M., Ellickson, P. L., & Jinnett, K. (2001). The temporal relationship between emotional distress and cigarette smoking during adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(6), 959–970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Patton, L. H. (1995). Adolescent substance abuse: Risk factors and protective factors. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 42(2), 283–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Paulussen, T. G. W., Panis, R., Peters, L., Buijs, G., & Wijnsma, P. (1998). Stand van zaken schoolgezondheidsbeleid in Nederland: Een inventariserend onderzoek. Woerden: NIGZ.Google Scholar
  100. Petraitis, J., Flay, B. R., & Miller, T. Q. (1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychological Bulletin, 117(1), 67–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Pirouznia, M. (2001). The association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in male and female adolescents in the US. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 52, 127–132.Google Scholar
  102. Pletcher, J. R., & Schwarz, D. F. (2000). Current concepts in adolescent smoking. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 12, 444–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Poikolainen, K., Tuulio-Henriksson, A., Aalto-Setala, T., Marttunen, M., & Lonnqvist, J. (2001). Predictors of alcohol intake and heavy drinking in early adulthood: A 5-year follow-up of 15–19-year-old Finnish adolescents. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 36(1), 85–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rogers, R. W. (1983). Cognitive and psychological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of Protection Motivation. In J. Cacioppo (Ed.), Social psychophysiology (pp. 153–176). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  105. Roos, E. B., Hirvonen, T., Mikkilä, V., Karvonen, S., & Rimpelä M. (2001). Household educational level as a determinant of consumption of raw vegetables among male and female adolescents. Preventive medicine, 33, 282–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rosengard, C., Adler, N. E., Gurvey, J. E., Dunlop, M. B. V., Tschann, J. M., Millstein, S. G., & Ellen, J. M. (2001). Protective role of health values in adolescents’ future intentions to use condoms. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(3), 200–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Mahler, K. A., & Rosario, M. (1995). AIDS prevention with adolescents. AIDS Education and Prevention, 7(3), 320–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sasco, A. J., & Kleihues, P. (1999). Why can’t we convince the young not to smoke? European Journal of Cancer, 35(14), 1933–1940.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Scaramella, L. V., & Keyes, A. W. (2001). The social contextual approach and rural adolescent substance use: Implications for prevention in rural settings. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(3), 231–251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schaalma, H., Bolman, C., de Nooyer, J., de Vries, H., Paulussen, Th., Aarts, H., & Willemse, G. (1997). Jongeren en de preventie van hart- en vaatziekten: Een leefstijl- en determinantenanalyse (Adolescents and the prevention of cardiac diseases: a lifestyle and determinant analysis). Den Haag/Woerden/Maastricht: Nederlandse Hartstichting, NIGZ, Universiteit Maastricht.Google Scholar
  111. Scheier, L. M., Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., & Diaz, T. (2000). Dynamic growth models of self-esteem and adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(2), 178–209.Google Scholar
  112. Schor, E. L. (1996). Adolescent alcohol use: Social determinants and the case for early family-centered prevention. Family-focused prevention of adolescent drinking. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 73(2), 335–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Simantov, E., Schoen, C., & Klein, J. D. (2000). Health-compromising behaviors: Why do adolescents smoke or drink? Identifying underlying risk and protective factors. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescence Medicine, 154, 1025–1033.Google Scholar
  114. Soldz, S., & Cui, X. (2002). Pathways through adolescent smoking: A 7-year longitudinal grouping analysis. Health Psychology, 21(5), 495–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Story, M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & French, S. (2002). Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102, S40–S51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Swadi, H. (1999). Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55(3), 209–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ten Dam, G. T. M. (2002). Effectiveness in health education. In I. Young (ed.), Education & health in partnership: A European conference on linking education with the promotion of health in schools (pp. 17–22). Woerden: NIGZ/International Planning Committee.Google Scholar
  118. Ten Dam, G., Volman, M., & Vernooij, F. (2000). New learning in social studies. In P. R. J. Simons, J. L. van der Linden, & T. M. Duffy (Eds.), New learning (pp. 141–156). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  119. Topolski, T. D., Patrick, D. L., Edwards, T. C., Huebner, C. E., Connell, F. A., & Kiomi Mount, K. (2001). Quality of life and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 426–435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Tschann, J. M., Adler, N. E., Millstein, S. G., Gurvey, J. E., & Ellen, J. M. (2002a). Relative power between sexual partners and condom use among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(1), 17–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Tschann, J. M., Flores, E., VanOss Marin, B., Pasch, L. A., Baisch, E. M., & Wibbelsman, C. J. (2002b). Interparental conflict and risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents: A cognitive-emotional model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 373–385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Tucker, J. S., Ellickson, P. L., & Klein, D. J. (2002). Five-year prospective study of risk factors for daily smoking in adolescence among early nonsmokers and experimenters. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(8), 1588–1603.Google Scholar
  123. Tyas, S. L., & Pederson, L. L. (1998). Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: A critical review of the literature. Tobacco Control, 7(4), 409–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wagner, E. F., & Atkins, J. H. (2000). Smoking among teenage girls. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 9(4), 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang, M. Q. (2001). Social environmental influences on adolescents’ smoking progression. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25(4), 418–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Weber Cullen, K., Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., & Koehly, L. M. (1998). Measuring stages of change for fruit and vegetable consumption in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Journal of behavioral medicine, 21, 241–254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Whaley, A. L. (1999). Preventing the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescents: Focus on HIV/AIDS transmission, unintended pregnancy, or both? Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(6), 376–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. White, H. R., Pandina, R. J., & Chen, P. H. (2002). Developmental trajectories of cigarette use from early adolescence into young adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65(2), 167–178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wilcox, P. (2003). An ecological approach to understanding youth smoking trajectories: Problems and prospects. Addiction, 98(Suppl 1), 57–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Hedberg, V. A., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Extrinsic life goals and health-risk behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(8), 1756–1771.Google Scholar
  131. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Yaeger, A. M. (2002). Stress and smoking in adolescence: A test of directional hypotheses. Health Psychology, 21(2), 122–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Harrington, K., & Davies, S. L. (2002). Body image and African American females’ sexual health. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 11(5), 433–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Woodruff, S. I., Candelaria, J. I., Kaniado-Laborín, R., Sallis, J. F., & Villasenor, A. (2003). Availability of cigarettes as a risk factor for trial smoking in adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(1), 84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Woodward, D. R., Cumming, F. J., Ball, P. J., Williams, H. M., & Hornsby, H. (1996). Adolescents’ reported usage of selected foods in relation to their perceptions and social norms for those foods. Appetite, 27, 109–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Yarcheski, T. J., Mahon, N. E., & Yarcheski, A. (2003). Social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices of early adolescents. Psychological reports, 92, 99–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Young, E. M., & Fors, S. W. (2001). Factors related to the eating habits of students in grades 9–12. Journal of School Health, 71, 483–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zweig, J. M., Phillips, S. D., & Duberstein Lindberg, L. (2002). Predicting adolescent profiles of risk: Looking beyond demographics. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 343–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carin H. Wiefferink
    • 1
    • 4
  • Louk Peters
    • 2
  • Femke Hoekstra
    • 1
  • Geert Ten Dam
    • 2
  • Goof J. Buijs
    • 3
  • Theo G. W. M. Paulussen
    • 1
  1. 1.TNO Quality of LifeLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Netherlands Institute For Health Promotion and Disease PreventionWoerdenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.TNO Quality of LifeLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations