Protection of PSI and PSII complexes of wheat from toxic effect of anthracene by Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594)

  • Lakshmi Jain
  • Anjana JajooEmail author
Original article


Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment indicates a serious problem to the present era. These are carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds and pose a potential risk to photosynthetic organisms. The present study illustrates the protection of Photosystem I and Photosystem II complexes of wheat plant by Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594) from toxic effects of anthracene (ANT). Initially, Chl a fluorescence induction curve measurement revealed declined J–I and I–P phase in ANT-treated plants. Efficiency of light absorption, trapping, and electron transport was reduced in ANT-treated plants, while in ANT + Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594)-treated plants value of these parameters was restored. Effect of ANT and ANT + Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594) on energy conversion of Photosystem I and Photosystem II was measured. Quantum yield of Photosystem I (YI) and Photosystem II (YII) was decreased in the presence of ANT, while these values were recovered in ANT + Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594)-treated plants. Reduction in Y(II) was associated with an increase in non-regulated energy dissipation NO. Likewise the reduction of Y(I) was induced due to donor-side and acceptor-side limitation of Photosystem I caused by toxic effect of ANT. Toxic effects of ANT on electron transport rate (ETRI and ETRII) were found to be reduced in ANT + Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594)-treated plants. Activation of Cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I in ANT-treated plants was recovered by bacteria. It was concluded that toxic effect of ANT on Photosystem I and Photosystem II complexes was recovered by Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594) strain, and thus it is useful strain for crop improvement in ANT-polluted soil.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Wheat PSII PSI Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 5594) Anthracene 









Cross section


Cyclic electron flow


Electron transport rate of PSI


Electron transport rate of PSII


Linear electron flow


Maximal changes in P700 signal


Photosystem I


Photosystem II


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons


Quantum yield of PSI


Quantum yield of PSII


Quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation due to acceptor- side limitation


Quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation due to donor-side limitation


Yield of non-regulated energy dissipation


Yield of regulated energy dissipation



LJ thanks the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, for CSIR-Senior Research Fellowship (09/301(0130)/2016-EMR-I).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life ScienceDevi Ahilya UniversityIndoreIndia

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