The Antarctic psychrophiles Chlamydomonas spp. UWO241 and ICE-MDV exhibit differential restructuring of photosystem I in response to iron

  • Greg Cook
  • Amber Teufel
  • Isha Kalra
  • Wei Li
  • Xin Wang
  • John Priscu
  • Rachael Morgan-KissEmail author
Original Article


Chlamydomonas sp. UWO241 is a psychrophilic alga isolated from the deep photic zone of a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake (east lobe Lake Bonney, ELB). Past studies have shown that C. sp. UWO241 exhibits constitutive downregulation of photosystem I (PSI) and high rates of PSI-associated cyclic electron flow (CEF). Iron levels in ELB are in the nanomolar range leading us to hypothesize that the unusual PSI phenotype of C. sp. UWO241 could be a response to chronic Fe-deficiency. We studied the impact of Fe availability in C. sp. UWO241, a mesophile, C. reinhardtii SAG11-32c, as well as a psychrophile isolated from the shallow photic zone of ELB, Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-MDV. Under Fe-deficiency, PsaA abundance and levels of photooxidizable P700 (ΔA820/A820) were reduced in both psychrophiles relative to the mesophile. Upon increasing Fe, C. sp. ICE-MDV and C. reinhardtii exhibited restoration of PSI function, while C. sp. UWO241 exhibited only moderate changes in PSI activity and lacked almost all LHCI proteins. Relative to Fe-excess conditions (200 µM Fe2+), C. sp. UWO241 grown in 18 µM Fe2+ exhibited downregulation of light harvesting and photosystem core proteins, as well as upregulation of a bestrophin-like anion channel protein and two CEF-associated proteins (NdsS, PGL1). Key enzymes of starch synthesis and shikimate biosynthesis were also upregulated. We conclude that in response to variable Fe availability, the psychrophile C. sp. UWO241 exhibits physiological plasticity which includes restructuring of the photochemical apparatus, increased PSI-associated CEF, and shifts in downstream carbon metabolism toward storage carbon and secondary stress metabolites.


Antarctica Cyclic electron flow Iron Photosystem I Psychrophile 



Electric field gradient


P700 + absorbance at 820 nm


Proportion of photooxidizable P700


Actinic light


Cyclic electron flow

Chl a

Chlorophyll a


Intersystem electron pool size per PSI reaction center


East lobe Lake Bonney


77 K fluorescence maximum, 685 nm


77 K fluorescence maximum, 715 nm


Far red


Maximum photosynthetic efficiency


High nutrient, low chlorophyll


Light harvesting complex I


Light harvesting complex II


Multiple turn-over/single turn-over actinic light flash


Nonphotochemical quenching


Photochemical reaction center of photosystem I, oxidized form


Proton motive force


Photosystem I


Photosystem II


Photochemical quenching


Half-time for re-reduction of P700+


Effective quantum yield of PSI


Effective quantum yield of PSII


Energy loss due to acceptor side limitation


Energy loss due to donor side limitation


Energy dissipation from nonregulated processes


Nonphotochemical energy dissipation from antenna quenching



The authors thank Prof. Joshua S. Yuan at Texas A&M University for helping us obtain the preliminary proteomics data for C. sp. UWO241.


GC, IK, AT, WL, XW and RM-K were supported by NSF Grants OPP-1056396 and -1637708, DOE Grant DE-SC0019138. JP was supported by NSF Grant PLR-1637708.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11120_2019_621_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3407 KB)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Land Resources and Environmental SciencesMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

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