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Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 138, Issue 1, pp 115–128 | Cite as

Is vegetative area, photosynthesis, or grape C uploading involved in the climate change-related grape sugar/anthocyanin decoupling in Tempranillo?

  • Carolina Salazar-Parra
  • Iker Aranjuelo
  • Inmaculada Pascual
  • Jone Aguirreolea
  • Manuel Sánchez-Díaz
  • Juan José Irigoyen
  • José Luis Araus
  • Fermín Morales
Original Article

Abstract

Foreseen climate change is expected to impact on grape composition, both sugar and pigment content. We tested the hypothesis that interactions between main factors associated with climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and water deficit) decouple sugars and anthocyanins, and explored the possible involvement of vegetative area, photosynthesis, and grape C uploading on the decoupling. Tempranillo grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to CO2 (700 vs. 400 ppm), temperature (ambient vs. + 4 °C), and irrigation levels (partial vs. full) in temperature-gradient greenhouses. In a search for mechanistic insights into the underlying processes, experiments 1 and 2 were designed to maximize photosynthesis and enlarge leaf area range among treatments, whereas plant growth was manipulated in order to deliberately down-regulate photosynthesis and control vegetative area in experiments 3 and 4. Towards this aim, treatments were applied either from fruit set to maturity with free vegetation and fully irrigated or at 5–8% of pot capacity (experiments 1 and 2), or from veraison to maturity with controlled vegetation and fully irrigated or at 40% of pot capacity (experiments 3 and 4). Modification of air 13C isotopic composition under elevated CO2 enabled the further characterization of whole C fixation period and C partitioning to grapes. Increases of the grape sugars-to-anthocyanins ratio were highly and positively correlated with photosynthesis and grape 13C labeling, but not with vegetative area. Evidence is presented for photosynthesis, from fruit set to veraison, and grape C uploading, from veraison to maturity, as key processes involved in the establishment and development, respectively, of the grape sugars to anthocyanins decoupling.

Keywords

Climate change Grapevine Harvest date Leaf area Photosynthesis Sugars/anthocyanins decoupling 

Abbreviations

AN

Net photosynthesis

PI

Partially irrigated

PPFD

Photosynthetic photon flux density

Tamb

Ambient temperature

TGG

Temperature-gradient greenhouse

TOM

Total organic matter

TSS

Total soluble solids

T+4

Elevated temperature

WI

Well irrigated

WSC

Water-soluble compounds

δ13C

C isotopic composition

Notes

Acknowledgements

Science and Innovation (BFU2008-01405/BFI), Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2014-56075-C2-1-R) Spanish Ministries, Aragón Government (A03 group) and the Basque Government (IT-932-16) for financial support, Navarra University “Asociación de Amigos” for Carolina Salazar-Parra grant, A. Urdiain, M. Oyarzun for excellent technical assistance, and EVENA for dormant cuttings supply.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11120_2018_552_MOESM1_ESM.docx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1—List of some Tempranillo grapevine traits used in this research. (DOCX 45 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina Salazar-Parra
    • 1
    • 5
  • Iker Aranjuelo
    • 2
  • Inmaculada Pascual
    • 1
  • Jone Aguirreolea
    • 1
  • Manuel Sánchez-Díaz
    • 1
  • Juan José Irigoyen
    • 1
  • José Luis Araus
    • 3
  • Fermín Morales
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Grupo de Fisiología del Estrés en Plantas (Dpto. de Biología Ambiental), Unidad Asociada al CSIC, EEAD, Zaragoza e ICVV, Logroño. Facultades de Ciencias y FarmaciaUniversidad de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto de Agrobiotecnología (IdAB)Universidad Pública de Navarra-CSIC-Gobierno de NavarraMutilva BajaSpain
  3. 3.Section of Plant PhysiologyUniversity of Barcelona, Barcelona and AGROTECNIO (Center for Research in Agrotechnology)LleidaSpain
  4. 4.Dpto. de Nutrición Vegetal, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (EEAD)Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)ZaragozaSpain
  5. 5.Instituto de Investigaciones AgropecuariasINIA La PlatinaSantiagoChile

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