Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 139, Issue 1–3, pp 509–522 | Cite as

Three phases of energy-dependent induction of \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) and Chl a fluorescence in Tradescantia fluminensis leaves

  • Vasily V. Ptushenko
  • Tatiana V. Zhigalova
  • Olga V. Avercheva
  • Alexander N. TikhonovEmail author
Original Article


In plants, the short-term regulation (STR, seconds to minute time scale) of photosynthetic apparatus is associated with the energy-dependent control in the chloroplast electron transport, the distribution of light energy between photosystems (PS) II and I, activation/deactivation of the Calvin–Benson cycle (CBC) enzymes, and relocation of chloroplasts within the plant cell. In this work, using a dual-PAM technique for measuring the time-courses of P700 photooxidation and Chl a fluorescence, we have investigated the STR events in Tradescantia fluminensis leaves. The comparison of Chl a fluorescence and \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) induction allowed us to investigate the contribution of the trans-thylakoid pH difference (ΔpH) to the STR events. Two parameters were used as the indicators of ΔpH generation: pH-dependent component of non-photochemical quenching of Chl a fluorescence, and pHin-dependent rate of electron transfer from plastoquinol (PQH2) to \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) (via the Cyt b6f complex and plastocyanin). In dark-adapted leaves, kinetics of \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) induction revealed three phases. Initial phase is characterized by rapid electron flow to \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) (τ1/2 ~ 5–10 ms), which is likely related to cyclic electron flow around PSI, while the outflow of electrons from PSI is restricted by slow consumption of NADPH in the CBC. The light-induced generation of ΔpH and activation of the CBC promote photooxidation of P700 and concomitant retardation of \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) reduction (τ1/2 ~ 20 ms). Prolonged illumination induces additional slowing down of electron transfer to \({\text{P}}_{{700}}^{+}\) (τ1/2 ≥ 30–35 ms). The latter effect is not accompanied by changes in the Chl a fluorescence parameters which are sensitive to ΔpH generation. We suggest the tentative explanation of the latter results by the reversal of Q-cycle, which causes the deceleration of PQH2 oxidation due to the back pressure of stromal reductants.


Photosynthesis Tradescantia fluminensis Induction events Regulation of photosynthetic electron transport 



Actinic light


Cytochrome b6f complex


Calvin–Benson cycle




Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I


Electron transport chain


Iron-sulfur protein








Far-red light


Linear electron flow


Long-term regulation




Non-photochemical quenching


Pulse amplitude modulation


Proton motive force


Photosynthetic apparatus


Photosystem I


Photosystem II


Reduced form of primary electron donor of PSI


Oxidized form of primary electron donor of PSI








Reactive oxygen species


Slow induction of fluorescence




Short-term regulation


Trans-thylakoid pH difference



This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (A.N. Tikhonov, projects 15-04-03790, 18-04-00214) and Russian Science Foundation (V.V. Ptushenko, Project 14-50-00029).


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasily V. Ptushenko
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tatiana V. Zhigalova
    • 3
  • Olga V. Avercheva
    • 3
  • Alexander N. Tikhonov
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.A.N.Belozersky Institute of Physical-Chemical BiologyM.V.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.N.M.Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Faculty of BiologyM.V.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Faculty of PhysicsM.V.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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