Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 113, Issue 1–3, pp 75–88 | Cite as

Modulation of photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency in nature: from seconds to seasons

  • Barbara Demmig-Adams
  • Christopher M. Cohu
  • Onno Muller
  • William W. AdamsIII
Review

Abstract

Modulation of the efficiency with which leaves convert absorbed light to photochemical energy [intrinsic efficiency of open photosystem II (PSII) centers, as the ratio of variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence] as well as leaf xanthophyll composition (interconversions of the xanthophyll cycle pigments violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) were characterized throughout single days and nights to entire seasons in plants growing naturally in contrasting light and temperature environments. All pronounced decreases of intrinsic PSII efficiency took place in the presence of zeaxanthin. The reversibility of these PSII efficiency changes varied widely, ranging from reversible-within-seconds (in a vine experiencing multiple sunflecks under a eucalypt canopy) to apparently permanently locked-in for entire seasons (throughout the whole winter in a subalpine conifer forest at 3,000 m). While close association between low intrinsic PSII efficiency and zeaxanthin accumulation was ubiquitous, accompanying features (such as trans-thylakoid pH gradient, thylakoid protein composition, and phosphorylation) differed among contrasting conditions. The strongest and longest-lasting depressions in intrinsic PSII efficiency were seen in the most stress-tolerant species. Evergreens, in particular, showed the most pronounced modulation of PSII efficiency and thermal dissipation, and are therefore suggested as model species for the study of photoprotection. Implications of the responses of field-grown plants in nature for mechanistic models are discussed.

Keywords

Non-photochemical fluorescence quenching Photochemical efficiency Photoprotection Photosynthetic efficiency Xanthophyll cycle Violaxanthin Zeaxanthin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National Science Foundation (Award Numbers IOS-0841546 and DEB-1022236) and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Demmig-Adams
    • 1
  • Christopher M. Cohu
    • 1
  • Onno Muller
    • 1
  • William W. AdamsIII
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology & Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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