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Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 112, Issue 1, pp 49–61 | Cite as

Characterization of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis ER-to-plastid lipid trafficking mutants

  • Ziru Li
  • Jinpeng Gao
  • Christoph Benning
  • Thomas D. SharkeyEmail author
Regular Paper

Abstract

Vascular plants use two pathways to synthesize galactolipids, the predominant lipid species in chloroplasts—a prokaryotic pathway that resides entirely in the chloroplast, and a eukaryotic pathway that involves assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutants deficient in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (tgd1-1 and tgd2-1) mutants, had been previously identified with reduced contents of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and altered lipid molecular species composition. Here, we report that the altered lipid composition affected photosynthesis in lipid trafficking mutants. It was found that proton motive force as measured by electrochromic shift was reduced by ~40 % in both tgd mutants. This effect was accompanied by an increase in thylakoid conductance attributable to ATPase activity and so the rate of ATP synthesis was nearly unchanged. Thylakoid conductance to ions also increased in tgd mutants. However, gross carbon assimilation in tgd mutants as measured by gas exchange was only marginally affected. Rubisco activity, electron transport rate, and photosystem I and II oxidation status were not altered. Despite the large differences in proton motive force, responses to heat and high light stress were similar between tgd mutants and the wild type.

Keywords

tgd1-1 tgd2-1 Proton motive force Electrochromic shift Galactolipids Photosynthesis 

Abbreviations

MGDG

Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

DGDG

Digalactosyldiacylglycerol

PS

Photosystem

ER

Endoplastic reticulum

TGDG

Trigalactosyldiacylglycerol

GGGT

Galactolipids:galactolipids galactosyltransferase

PC

Phosphotidylcholine

PA

Phosphotidic acid

TAG

Triacylglycerol

NoFOSpec

Non-focusing optics spectrophotometer

ECS

Electrochromic shift

DIRK

Dark-interval relaxation kinetics

pmf

Proton motive force

PPFD

Photosynthetic photon flux density

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. David Kramer for his helpful advice on using the NoFOSpec and Dr. Sean E. Weise for his technical assistance with LI-6400. This project was funded by the National Science Foundation Grants IOS-0950574 to T.D.S. and MCB-0741395 to C.B.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ziru Li
    • 1
  • Jinpeng Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christoph Benning
    • 1
  • Thomas D. Sharkey
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Biological ChemistryWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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