Photosynthesis Research

, 102:255 | Cite as

X-ray emission spectroscopy

  • Uwe Bergmann
  • Pieter Glatzel


We describe the chemical information that can be obtained by means of hard X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). XES is presented as a technique that is complementary to X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and that provides valuable information with respect to the electronic structure (local charge- and spin-density) as well as the ligand environment of a 3d transition metal. We address non-resonant and resonant XES and present results that were recorded on Mn model systems and the Mn4Ca-cluster in the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II. A brief description of the instrumentation is given with an outlook toward future developments.


X-ray spectroscopy X-ray emission Synchrotron radiation Electronic structure Photosystem II Manganese Oxygen evolving complex 



Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a national user facility operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. We acknowledge the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and the staff of beamline ID26 and beamline ID16.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceStanfordUSA
  2. 2.European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)GrenobleFrance

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