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Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 98, Issue 1–3, pp 687–700 | Cite as

Designing photosystem II: molecular engineering of photo-catalytic proteins

  • Brendon Conlan
Review

Abstract

Biological photosynthesis utilizes membrane-bound pigment/protein complexes to convert light into chemical energy through a series of electron-transfer events. In the unique photosystem II (PSII) complex these electron-transfer events result in the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. PSII is an extremely complex enzyme and in order to exploit its unique ability to convert sunlight into chemical energy it will be necessary to make a minimal model. Here we will briefly describe how PSII functions and identify those aspects that are essential in order to catalyze the oxidation of water into O2, and review previous attempts to design simple photo-catalytic proteins and summarize our current research exploiting the E. coli bacterioferritin protein as a scaffold into which multiple cofactors can be bound, to oxidize a manganese metal center upon illumination. Through the reverse engineering of PSII and light driven water splitting reactions it may be possible to provide a blueprint for catalysts that can produce clean green fuel for human energy needs.

Keywords

Artificial photosynthesis Photosystem II Manganese Electron transfer Protein engineering Bacterioferritin Zinc chlorin e6 Water splitting 

Abbreviations

BFR

Bacterioferritin

ZnCe6

ZincII chlorin e6

ZnPP

Zinc protoporphyrin

BChl

Bacteriochlorophyll

BRC

Bacterial reaction center

Chl

Chlorophyll

CoQ0

Coenzyme Q without the hydrophobic tail

Cyt

Cytochrome

Em

Midpoint redox potential

Mn4Ca

Tetranuclear manganese/calcium cluster

OEC

Oxygen evolving complex

P

Reaction center chlorophyll complex

PSII

Photosystem II

Q

Quinone

Y

Redox-active tyrosine

D

Electron donor

A

Electron acceptor

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial assistance was provided by a grant from the Australian Research Council (ARC DP0450421) and ANU Postgraduate Scholarship. Thanks to Tom Wydrzynski for advice and review of the manuscript.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research School of Biological ScienceAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

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