Advertisement

Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 92, Issue 2, pp 163–179 | Cite as

Biosynthesis, accumulation and emission of carotenoids, α-tocopherol, plastoquinone, and isoprene in leaves under high photosynthetic irradiance

  • Hartmut K. LichtenthalerEmail author
Review Paper

Abstract

The localization of isoprenoid lipids in chloroplasts, the accumulation of particular isoprenoids under high irradiance conditions, and channelling of photosynthetically fixed carbon into plastidic thylakoid isoprenoids, volatile isoprenoids, and cytosolic sterols are reviewed. During leaf and chloroplast development in spring plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis provides primarily thylakoid carotenoids, the phytyl side-chain of chlorophylls and the electron carriers phylloquinone K1, α-tocoquinone and α-tocopherol, as well as the nona-prenyl side-chain of plastoquinone-9. Under high irradiance, plants develop sun leaves and high light (HL) leaves with sun-type chloroplasts that possess, besides higher photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rates, different quantitative levels of pigments and prenylquinones as compared to shade leaves and low light (LL) leaves. After completion of chloroplast thylakoid synthesis plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis continues at high irradiance conditions, constantly accumulating α-tocopherol (α-T) and the reduced form of plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9H2) deposited in the steadily enlarging osmiophilic plastoglobuli, the lipid reservoir of the chloroplast stroma. In sun leaves of beech (Fagus) and in 3-year-old sunlit Ficus leaves the level of α-T and PQ-9 can exceed that of chlorophyll b. Most plants respond to HL conditions (sun leaves, leaves suddenly lit by the sun) with a 1.4–2-fold increase of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids (violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin), an enhanced operation of the xanthophyll cycle and an increase of β-carotene levels. This is documented by significantly lower values for the weight ratio chlorophylls to carotenoids (range: 3.6–4.6) as compared to shade and LL leaves (range: 4.8–7.0). Many plant leaves emit under HL and high temperature conditions at high rates the volatile compounds isoprene (broadleaf trees) or methylbutenol (American ponderosa pines), both of which are formed via the plastidic 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-phosphate/2-C-methylerythritol 5-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway. Other plants by contrast, accumulate particular mono- and diterpenes. Under adequate photosynthetic conditions the chloroplastidic DOXP/MEP isoprenoid pathway essentially contributes, with its C5 isoprenoid precusors, to cytosolic sterol biosynthesis. The possible cross-talk between the two cellular isoprenoid pathways, the acetate/MVA and the DOXP/MEP pathways, that preferentially proceeds in a plastid-to-cytosol direction, is shortly discussed.

Keywords

Andy A. Benson β-Carotene Chlorophylls Chloroplast adaptation Carbon flow into isoprenoids Chloroplast envelope Cross-talk between the two isoprenoid pathways DOXP/MEP pathway Fosmidomycin Isoprenoid biosynthesis MEP pathway Methylbutenol Mevinolin Phylloquinone K1 Plastoglobuli Sterol formation Sun chloroplasts Zeaxanthin 

Abbreviations

b

Total chlorophylls

a/b

Ratio of chlorophyll a to b

Chl

Chlorophyll

(a + b)/(c)

Weight ratio of chlorophylls to carotenoids

A

Antheraxanthin

c

Carotenes

DMAPP

Dimethylallyldiphosphate

DOXP/MEP pathway

Plastidic 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-4-phosphate/2-C-methylerythritol 5-phosphate pathway

GAP

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

IPP

Isopentenyl diphosphate

MBO

2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol

MEP

2-C-methylerythritol 5-phosphate

MVA

Mevalonic acid

PPFD

Photosynthetic photon flux density

V

Violaxanthin

x + c

Total carotenoids

x

Xanthophylls

Z

Zeaxanthin

Notes

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to former Ph.D students and group members who carried out parts of the research on plant isoprenoid biosynthesis (T. J. Bach, C. Müller, J. Schwender, J. Zeidler) and chloroplast adaptation to high irradiance conditions (C. Buschmann, M. Knapp, G. Langsdorf, D. Meier, U. Rinderle-Zimmer). I wish to thank Professor Bob Buchanan for helpful comments on this manuscript, Ms Sabine Zeiler for long-term excellent implementation of pigment determinations, and Ms Gabrielle Johnson for English language assistance.

References

  1. Adam KP, Zapp J (1998) Biosynthesis of the isoprene units of chamomile sesquiterpenes. Phytochemistry 48:653–659Google Scholar
  2. Adams WW, Demmig-Adams B (1994) Carotenoid composition and down regulation of photosystem II in three conifer species during the winter. Physiol Plant 92:451–458Google Scholar
  3. Affek HP, Yakir D (2002) Protection by isoprene against singlet oxygen in leaves. Plant Physiol 129:269–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Affek HP, Yakir D (2003) Natural abundance carbon isotope composition of isoprene reflects incomplete coupling between isoprene synthesis and photosynthetic carbon flow. Plant Physiol 131:1727–1736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alban C, Joyard J, Douce R (1988) Preparation and characterization of envelope membranes from nongreenplastids. Plant Physiol 88:709–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JM, Chow WS, Park Y-I (1995) The grand design of photosynthesis: acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to environmental cues. Photosynth Res 46:129–139Google Scholar
  7. Andrews TJ, Kane HJ (1991) Pyruvate is a by-product of catalysis by ribulosebisphosphate caboxylase/oxygenase. J Biol Chem 266:9447–9452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bach TJ, Lichtenthaler HK (1982) Mevinolin, a highly specific inhibitor of microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase of radish plants. Z Naturforsch 37c:46–50Google Scholar
  9. Bach TJ, Lichtenthaler HK (1983a) Mechanisms of inhibition by mevinolin (MK 803) of microsome-bound radish and of partially purified yeast HMG-CoA reductase, (EC. 1.1.1.34). Z Naturforsch 37c:212–219Google Scholar
  10. Bach TJ, Lichtenthaler HK (1983b) Inhibition by mevinolin of plant growth, sterol formation and pigment accumulation. Physiol Plant 59:50–60Google Scholar
  11. Bassham JA, Benson AA, Kay LD, Harris AZ, Wilson AT, Calvin M (1954) The path of carbon in photosynthesis. XXI. The cyclic regeneration of carbon dioxide acceptor. J Am Chem Soc 76:1760–1770Google Scholar
  12. Beale SI (1999) Enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Photosyn Res 60:43–73Google Scholar
  13. Bennett J (1983) Regulation of photosynthesis by reversible phosphorylation of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins. Biochem J 212:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benning C (2007) Questions remaining in sulfolipid biosynthesis: a historical perspective. Photosyn Res  doi: 10.1007/s11120-007-9144-6
  15. Benson AA (1963) The plant sulfolipid. Adv Lipid Res 64:387–394Google Scholar
  16. Benson AA (1964) Plant membrane lipids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 15:1–16Google Scholar
  17. Benson AA (1971) Lipids of chloroplasts. In: Gibbs M (ed) Structure and function of chloroplasts. Springer, Berlin, pp 130–145Google Scholar
  18. Benson AA (2002a) Paving the path. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Benson AA (2002b) Following the path of carbon in photosynthesis: a personal story. Photosynth Res 73:29–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Benson AA, Maruo B (1958) Plant phospholipids. I. Identification of phosphatidyl glycerols. Biochim Biophys Acta 27:189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Benson AA, Strickland EH (1960) Plant phospholipids. III Identification of diphospatidyl glycerol. Biochim Biophys Acta 41:328–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Benson AA, Miyano M (1961) The phosphatidylglycerol and sulfolipid of plants: asymmetry of the glycerol moiety. Biochem J 81:31PGoogle Scholar
  23. Benson AA, Miyano M (1962) The plant sulfolipid. VII Synthesis of 6.sufo-a.D-quinovopyranosyl-(1-1′)-glycerol and radiochemical synthesis of sulfolipids. J Am Chem Soc 84:59–62Google Scholar
  24. Benson AA, Bassham JA, Calvin M, Hall AG, Hirsch HE, Kawaguchi S, Lynch V, Tolbert NE (1952) The path of carbon in photosynthesis. XV. Ribulose and sedoheptulose. J Biol Chem 196:703–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Benson AA, Wiser R, Ferrari RA, Miller JA (1958) Photosynthesis of galactolipids. J Am Chem Soc 80:4740Google Scholar
  26. Benson AA, Daniel H, Wiser R (1959a) A sulfolipid in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci 45:1582–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Benson AA, Wintermans JFGM, Wiser R (1959b) Chloroplast lipids as carbohydrates reservoir. Plant Physiol 34:315–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bick JA, Lange BM (2003) Metabolic cross talk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis: unidirectional transport of intermediates across the chloroplast envelope membrane. Arch Biochem Biophys 415:146–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Boardman N (1977) Comparative photosynthesis of sun and shade plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28:355–377Google Scholar
  30. Brugnoli E, Scartazza A, De Tullio MC, Monterverdi MC, Lauteri M, Augusti A (1998) Zeaxanthin and non-photochemical quenching in sun and shade leaves of C3 and C4 Plants. Physiol Plant 104:727–734Google Scholar
  31. Calvin M, Bassham JA (1962) The photosynthesis of carbon compounds. WA Benjamin Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Delwiche CF, Sharkey TD (1993) Rapid appearance of 13C in biogenic isoprene when 13CO2 is fed to intact leaves. Plant Cell Environ 16:587–591Google Scholar
  33. Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW (1992) Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high light stress. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:599–626Google Scholar
  34. Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW (1996) The role of the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in the protection of photosynthesis. Trends Plant Sci 1:21–26Google Scholar
  35. Disch A, Schwender J, Müller C, Lichtenthaler HK, Rohmer M (1998) Distribution of the mevalonate and glyceraldehyde phosphate/pyruvate pathways for isoprenoid biosynthesis in unicellular algae and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6714. Biochem J 333:381–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Douce R, Holtz B, Benson AA (1973) Isolation and properties of the envelope of spinach chloroplasts. J Biol Chem 248:7215–7222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dudareva N, Andersson S, Orlova I, Gatto N, Reichelt M, Rhodes D, Boland W, Gershenzon J (2005) The nonmevalonate pathway supports both monoterpene and sesquiterpene formation in snapdragon flowers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:933–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Falk H (1960) Magnoglobuli in Chloroplasten von Ficus elastica Roxb. Planta 55:525–532Google Scholar
  39. Fall R, Benson AA (1996) Leaf methanol—the simplest natural product from plants. Trends Plant Sci 1:296–301Google Scholar
  40. Ferrari RA, Benson AA (1961) The path of carbon in photosynthesis of the lipids. Arch Biochem Biophys 93:185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Flügge UI, Gao W (2005) Transport of isoprenoid intermediates across chloroplast envelope membranes. Plant Biol 7:91–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Garcia-Plazaola JI, Faria T, Abadia J, Chavess MM, Pereira JS (1997) Seasonal changes in xanthophyll composition and photosynthesis of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaves under mediterranean climate. J Exp Bot 48:1667–1674Google Scholar
  43. Givnish TJ (1988) Adaptation to sun vs. shade: a whole plant perspective. Austr J Plant Physiol 15:63–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Golz A, Focke M, Lichtenthaler HK (1994) Inhibitors of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants. J Plant Physiol 143:426–433Google Scholar
  45. Gout E, Aubert S, Bligny R, Rébeillé F, Nonomura AR, Benson AA, Douce R (2000) Metabolism of methanol in Plant cells. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Plant Physiol 123:287–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gray DW, Lerdau MT, Goldstein AH (2002) Influence of temperature history, water stress, and needle age on methylbutenol emissions. Ecology 84:765–776Google Scholar
  47. Green BR, Durnford DG (1996) The chlorophyll-carotenoid proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:685–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hampel D, Mosandl A, Wüst M (2005) Biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in carrot roots and leaves (Daucus carota L.): metabolic cross talk of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways. Phytochemistry 66:305–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Harley P, Fridd-Stroud V, Greenberg J, Guenther A, Vasconcellos P (1998) Emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol by pines: a potential large source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere. J Geophys Res D 103:25479–25486Google Scholar
  50. Heber U, Heldt HW (1981) The chloroplast envelope: structure, function and role in leaf metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 32:139–168Google Scholar
  51. Hemmerlin A, Hoeffler J-F, Meyer O, Tritsch D, Kagan IA, Grosdemange-Billiard C, Rohmer M, Bach TJ (2003) Plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells. J Biol Chem 278:26666–26676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hemmerlin A, Tritsch D, Hartmann M, Pacaud K, Hoeffler J-F, van Dorsselaer A, Rohmer M, Bach TJ (2006) A cytosolic Arabidopsis D-xylulose kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose into a precursor of the plastidial isoprenoid pathway. Plant Physiol 142:441–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jeffrey SW, Douce R, Benson AA (1974) Carotenoid transformations in the chloroplast envelope. Proc Natl Acad Sci 71:807–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Joyard J, Teyssier E, Miège C, Berny-Seigneurin D, Maréchal E, Block MA, Dorne A-J, Rolland N, Ajlani G, Douce R (1998) The biochemical machinery of plastid envelope membranes. Plant Physiol 118:715–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kasahara H, Hanada A, Kuzuyama T, Takagi M, Kamiya Y, Yamaguchi S (2002) Contribution of the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways to the biosynthesis of gibberellins in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem 277:45188–45194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kesselmeier J, Staudt M (1999) Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC): an overview on emission, physiology and ecology. J Atmos Chem 33:23–88Google Scholar
  57. Lerdau M, Guenther A, Monson R (1997) Plant prodution and emission of volatile organic compounds. BioScience 47:373–383Google Scholar
  58. Lichtenthaler HK (1968) Plastoglobuli and the fine structure of plastids. Endeavour XXVII:144–149Google Scholar
  59. Lichtenthaler HK (1969a) Die Plastoglobuli von Spinat, ihre Größe und Zusammensetzung während der Chloroplastendegeneration. Protoplasma 68:315–326Google Scholar
  60. Lichtenthaler HK (1969b) Die Bildung überschüssiger Plastidenchinone in den Blättern von Ficus elasticus Roxb. Z Naturforsch 24b:1461–1466Google Scholar
  61. Lichtenthaler HK (1969c) Localization and functional concentrations of lipoquinones in chloroplasts. In: Metzner H (ed) Photosynthesis research, vol I. Tübingen, pp 304–314Google Scholar
  62. Lichtenthaler HK (1969d) Plastoglobuli und Lipochinongehalt der Chloroplasten von Cereus peruvianus (L.) Mill. Planta 87:304–310Google Scholar
  63. Lichtenthaler HK (1971a) Die unterschiedliche Synthese der lipophilen Plastidenchinone in Sonnen- und Schattenblättern von Fagus sylvatica L. Z Naturforsch 26b:832–842Google Scholar
  64. Lichtenthaler HK (1971b) Formation and function of plastoglobuli in plastids. Proceed Septième Congrès International de Microscopie électronique Grenoble, 1970, p 206Google Scholar
  65. Lichtenthaler HK (1981) Adaptation of leaves and chloroplasts to high quanta fluence rates. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Photosynthesis VI. Balaban Internat Science Service, Philadelphia, pp 273–287Google Scholar
  66. Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids, the pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. In: Douce R, Packer L (eds) Methods enzymol, vol 148. Academic Press Inc., New York, pp 350–382Google Scholar
  67. Lichtenthaler HK (1999) The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:47–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lichtenthaler HK (2000) The non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthesis: enzymes, genes and inhibitors. Biochem Soc Trans 28:787–792Google Scholar
  69. Lichtenthaler HK, Babani F (2004) Light adaptation and senescence of the photosynthetic apparatus. Changes in pigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic activity. In: Papageorgiou GC, Govindjee (eds) Chlorophyll fluorescence: a signature of photosynthesis. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 713–736Google Scholar
  70. Lichtenthaler HK, Calvin M (1964) Quinone and pigment composition of chloro-plasts and quantasome aggregates from Spinacia oleracea. Biochim Biophys Acta 79:30–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lichtenthaler HK, Sprey B (1966) Über die osmiophilen globulären Lipideinschlüsse der Chloroplasten. Z Naturforsch 21b:690–697Google Scholar
  72. Lichtenthaler HK, Park RB (1963) Chemical composition of chloroplast lamellae from spinach. Nature 198:1070–1072Google Scholar
  73. Lichtenthaler HK, Schindler C (1992) Studies on the photoprotective function of zeaxanthin at high-light conditions. In: Murata N (ed) Research in photosynthesis, vol IV. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 517–520Google Scholar
  74. Lichtenthaler HK, Sprey B (1966) Über die osmiophilen globulären Lipideinschlüsse der Chloroplasten. Z Naturforsch 21b:690–697Google Scholar
  75. Lichtenthaler HK, Weinert H (1970) Die Beziehungen zwischen Lipochinonsynthese und Plastoglobulibildung in den Chloroplasten von Ficus elastica Roxb. Z Naturforsch 25b:619–623Google Scholar
  76. Lichtenthaler HK, Prenzel U, Douce R, Joyard J (1981a) Localization of prenylquinones in the envelope of spinach chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 641:99–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C, Döll M, Fietz H-J, Bach T, Kozel U, Meier D, Rahmsdorf U (1981b) Photosynthetic activity, chloroplast ultrastructure, and leaf characteristics of high-light and low-light plants and of sun and shade leaves. Photosyn Res 2:115–141Google Scholar
  78. Lichtenthaler HK, Prenzel U, Kuhn G (1982a) Carotenoid composition of chlorophyll-carotenoid-proteins from radish chloroplasts. Z Naturforsch 37c:10–12Google Scholar
  79. Lichtenthaler HK, Kuhn G, Prenzel U, Buschmann C, Meier D (1982b) Adaptation of chloroplast-ultrastructure and of chlorophyll-protein levels to high-light and low-light growth conditions. Z Naturforsch 37c:464–475Google Scholar
  80. Lichtenthaler HK, Meier D, Buschmann C (1984) Development of chloroplasts at high and low light quanta fluence rates. Israel J Bot 33:185–194Google Scholar
  81. Lichtenthaler HK, Schwender J, Disch A, Rohmer M (1997a) Biosynthesis of isoprenoids in higher plant chloroplasts proceeds via a mevalonate independent pathway. FEBS Lett 400:271–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lichtenthaler HK, Rohmer M, Schwender J (1997b) Two independent biochemical pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and isoprenoid biosynthesis in higher plants. Physiol Plant 101:643–652Google Scholar
  83. Loreto F, Velikova V (2001) Isoprene produced by leaves protects the photosynthetic apparatus against ozone damage, quenches ozone products, and reduces lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes. Plant Physiol 127:1781–1787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Loreto F, Mannozzi M, Maris C, Nascetti P, Ferranti F, Pasqualini S (2001) Ozone quenching properties of isoprene and its antioxidant role in leaves. Plant Physiol 126:993–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mandel MA, Feldmann KA, Herrera-Estrella L, Rocha-Sosa M, León P (1996) CLA1, a novel gene required for chloroplast development, is highly conserved in evolution. Plant J 9:649–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mayrhofer S, Teuber M, Zimmer I, Louis S, Fischbach RJ, Schnitzler JP (2005) Diurnal and seasonal variation of isoprene biosynthesis-related genes in grey poplar leaves. Plant Physiol 139:474–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Meier D, Lichtenthaler HK (1981) Ultrastructural development of chloroplasts in radish seedlings grown at high and low light conditions and in the presence of the herbicide bentazon. Protoplasma 107:195–207Google Scholar
  88. Nabeta K, Ishikawa T, Okuyama H (1995) Sesqui- and diterpene biosynthesis from 13C labelled acetate and mevalonate in cultures cells of Heterocyphus planus. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:3111–3115Google Scholar
  89. Nabeta K, Kawae T, Saitoh T, Kikuchi T (1997) Synthesis of chlorophyll a and ß-carotene from 2H and 13C-labelled mevalonates and 13C-labeled glycin in cultured cells of liwerworts Heterocyphus planus and Lophocolea heterophylla. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:261–267Google Scholar
  90. Nagata N, Suzuki M, Yoshida S, Muranaka T (2002) Mevalonic acid partially restores chloroplast and etioplast development in Arabidopsis lacking the non-mevalonate pathway. Planta 216:345–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nelson N, Yocum CF (2006) Structure and function of photosystems I and II. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:521–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Nemecek-Marshall M, MacDonald RC, Franzen JJ, Wojciechowski CL, Fall R (1995) Methanol emission from leaves: enzymatic detection of gas-phase methanol and relation of methanol fluxes to stomatal conductance and leaf development. Plant Physiol 108:1359–1368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Nonomura AM, Benson AA (1992a) The path of carbon in photosynthesis: methanol and light. In: Murata N (ed) Research in photosynthesis Vol III. Kluwer Acad Publisher, Dordrecht, pp 911–915Google Scholar
  94. Nonomura AM, Benson AA (1992b) The path of carbon in photosynthesis: improved crop yields with methanol. Proc Natl Acad Sci 89:9794–9798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. O’Brien JS, Benson AA (1964) Isolation and fatty acid composition of the plant sulfolipid and galactolipids. The J Lipid Res 5:432–436Google Scholar
  96. Penuelas J, Llusia J (2004) Plant VOC emissions: making use of the unavoidable. Trends Ecol Evol 19:402–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rasmussen RH, Khalil MAK (1998) Isoprene over the Amazon Basin. J Geoph Res 93:1417–1421Google Scholar
  98. Rosenstiel TN, Fisher AJ, Fall R, Monson RK (2002) Differential accumulation of dimethylallyl diphosphate in leaves and needles of isoprene- and methylbutenol-emitting and nonemitting species. Plant Physiol 129:1276–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rosenstiel TN, Ebbets AL, Khatri WC, Fall R, Monson RK (2004) Induction of poplar leaf nitrate reductase: a test of extrachloroplastidic control of isoprene emission rate. Plant Biol 6:12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schade GW, Goldstein AH, Gray DW, Lerdau MT (2000) Canopy and leaf level 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol fluxes from a ponderosa pine plantation. Atmos Environ 34:3535–3544Google Scholar
  101. Schindler C, Lichtenthaler HK (1996) Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence and zeaxanthin accumulation in field-grown maple trees in the course of a sunny and a cloudy day. J Plant Physiol 148:399–412Google Scholar
  102. Schindler C, Reith P, Lichtenthaler HK (1994) Differential levels of carotenoids and decrease of zeaxanthin cycle performance during leaf development in a green and an aurea variety of tobacco. J Plant Physiol 143:500–507Google Scholar
  103. Schindler S, Bach TJ, Lichtenthaler HK (1985) Differential inhibition by mevinolin of prenyllipid accumulation in radish seedlings. Z Naturforsch 40c:208–214Google Scholar
  104. Schnitzler J-P, Graus M, Kreuzwieser J, Heizmann U, Rennenberg H, Wisthaler A, Hansel A (2004) Contribution of different carbon sources to isoprene biosynthesis in poplar leaves. Plant Physiol 135:152–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Schuhr CA, Radykewicz T, Sagner S, Latzel C, Zenk MH, Arigoni D, Bacher A, Rohdich F, Eisenreich W (2003) Quantitative assessment of crosstalk between the two isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways in plants by NMR spectroscopy. Phytochem Rev 2:3–16Google Scholar
  106. Schulze-Siebert D, Schulze G (1987) ß-carotene synthesis in isolated chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 84:1233–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Schulze-Siebert D, Heinecke D, Scharf H, Schulze G (1984) Pyruvate-derived amino acids in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 76:465–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schwarz MK (1994) Terpenbiosynthese in Ginkgo biloba. PhD thesis, Eidgen Techn Hochschule, Zürich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  109. Schwender J, Seeman M, Lichtenthaler HK, Rohmer M (1996) Biosynthesis of isoprenoids (carotenoids, sterols, prenyl side-chains of chlorophyll and plastoquinone) via a novel pyruvate/glycero-aldehyde-3-phosphate non-mevalonate pathway in the green alga Scenedesmus. Biochem J 316:73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schwender J, Zeidler J, Gröner R, Müller C, Focke M, Braun S, Lichtenthaler FW, Lichtenthaler HK (1997) Incorporation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose into isoprene and phytol by higher plants and algae. FEBS Lett 414:129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schwender J, Gemünden HK, Lichtenthaler HK (2001) Chlorophyta exclusively use the 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. Planta 212:416–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sharkey TD (1996) Isoprene emission by plants and animals. Endeavour 20:74–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sharkey TD, Yeh S (2001) Isoprene emission from plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 52:407–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sharkey TD, Singsaas EL (1995) Why plants emit isoprene. Nature 374:769Google Scholar
  115. Sharkey TD, Yeh S, Wiberley AE, Falbel TG, Gong D, Fernandez DE (2005) Evolution of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway in kudzu. Plant Physiol 137:700–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Silver GM, Fall R (1995) Characterization of aspen isoprene synthase, an enzyme responsible for leaf isoprene emission to the atmosphere. J Biol Chem 270:13010–13016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stumpf PK (1984) Fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants. In: Numa S (ed) Fatty acid metabolism and its regulation. Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Amsterdam, pp 155–179Google Scholar
  118. Tevini M, Steinmüller D (1985) Composition and function of plastoglobuli. Planta 163:91–96Google Scholar
  119. Thayer SS, Björkman O (1990) Leaf xanthophyll content and composition in sun and shade determined by HPLC. Photosynth Res 23:331–343Google Scholar
  120. Thiele A, Schirwitz K, Winter K, Krause GH (1996) Increased xanthophyll cycle activity and reduced D1 protein inactivation in two plant systems acclimated to excess light. Plant Sci 115:237–250Google Scholar
  121. Thornber JP (1975) Chlorophyll-proteins: light-harvesting and reaction center components of plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 26:127–158Google Scholar
  122. von Wettstein D, Gough S, Kannangara CG (1995) Chlorophyll biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7:1039–1057Google Scholar
  123. Wada H, Murata N (2007) The essential role of phosphatidylglycerol in photosynthesis. Photosyn Res doi:  10.1007/s11120-007-9203-z
  124. Walker D (2007) From Chlorella to chloroplasts—a personal note. Photosyn Res doi:  10.1007/s11120-007-9130-3
  125. Weier TE, Benson AA (1967) The molecular organization of chloroplast membranes. Am J Bot 54:389–402Google Scholar
  126. Wild A, Höpfner M, Rühle W, Richter M (1986) Changes in the stochiometry of photosystem II components as an adaptive response to high-light and low-light conditions during growth. Z Naturforsch C 41:597–603Google Scholar
  127. Wildermuth MC, Fall R (1996) Light-dependent isoprene emission (Characterization of a thylakoid-bound isoprene synthase in Salix discolor chloroplasts). Plant Physiol 112:171–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Wildermuth MC, Fall R (1998) Biochemical characterization of stromal and thylakoid-bound isoforms of isoprene synthase in willow leaves. Plant Physiol 116:1111–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wintermans JFGM (1960) Concentration of phospholipids and glycolipids in leaves and chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 44:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wolfertz M, Sharkey TD, Boland W, Kuhnemann F (2004) Rapid regulation of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway during isoprene synthesis. Plant Physiol 135:1939–1945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Young AJ (1991) The photoprotective role of carotenoids in higher plants. Physiol Plant 83:702–708Google Scholar
  132. Zeidler JG, Lichtenthaler HK (1998) Two simple methods for measuring isoprene emission of leaves by UV-spectroscopy and GC–MS. Z Naturforsch 53c:1087–1089Google Scholar
  133. Zeidler J, Lichtenthaler HK (2001) Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol emitted from needles of Pinus ponderosa via the non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP pathway of isoprenoid formation. Planta 213:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zeidler JG, Lichtenthaler HK, May HU, Lichtenthaler FW (1997) Is isoprene emitted by plants synthesized via the novel isopentenylpyrophosphate pathway? Z Naturforsch 52c:15–23Google Scholar
  135. Zeidler JG, Schwender J, Müller C, Wiesner J, Weidemeyer C, Beck E, Jomaa H, Lichtenthaler HK (1998) Inhibition of the non-mevalonate 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of plant isoprenoid biosynthesis by fosmidomycin. Z Naturforsch 53c:980–986Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botanisches Institut (Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Plants)University of KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations