Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 94, Issue 2–3, pp 275–290

The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint

  • George C. Papageorgiou
  • Merope Tsimilli-Michael
  • Kostas Stamatakis
Research Article

Abstract

The light-induced/dark-reversible changes in the chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence of photosynthetic cells and membranes in the μs-to-several min time window (fluorescence induction, FI; or Kautsky transient) reflect quantum yield changes (quenching/de-quenching) as well as changes in the number of Chls a in photosystem II (PS II; state transitions). Both relate to excitation trapping in PS II and the ensuing photosynthetic electron transport (PSET), and to secondary PSET effects, such as ion translocation across thylakoid membranes and filling or depletion of post-PS II and post-PS I pools of metabolites. In addition, high actinic light doses may depress Chl a fluorescence irreversibly (photoinhibitory lowering; q(I)). FI has been studied quite extensively in plants an algae (less so in cyanobacteria) as it affords a low resolution panoramic view of the photosynthesis process. Total FI comprises two transients, a fast initial (OPS; for Origin, Peak, Steady state) and a second slower transient (SMT; for Steady state, Maximum, Terminal state), whose details are characteristically different in eukaryotic (plants and algae) and prokaryotic (cyanobacteria) oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. In the former, maximal fluorescence output occurs at peak P, with peak M lying much lower or being absent, in which case the PSMT phases are replaced by a monotonous PT fluorescence decay. In contrast, in phycobilisome (PBS)-containing cyanobacteria maximal fluorescence occurs at M which lies much higher than peak P. It will be argued that this difference is caused by a fluorescence lowering trend (state 1 → 2 transition) that dominates the FI pattern of plants and algae, and correspondingly by a fluorescence increasing trend (state 2 → 1 transition) that dominates the FI of PBS-containing cyanobacteria. Characteristically, however, the FI pattern of the PBS-minus cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina resembles the FI patterns of algae and plants and not of the PBS-containing cyanobacteria.

Keywords

Algae Chlorophyll fluorescence Cyanobacteria Fast fluorescence induction Higher plants Kautsky transient Nonphotochemical quenching Photochemical quenching Photoinhibitory fluorescence lowering Slow fluorescence induction State transitions 

Abbreviations

APC

Allophycocyanin

Ax

Antheraxanthin

Chl

Chlorophyll

CPC

C-phycocyanin

DCMU

3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dimethyl urea

FI

Fluorescence induction

LHC

Light harvesting complex

PBP

Phycobiliprotein

PBS

Phycobilisome

Pheo

Pheophytin a

PQ

Plastoquinone pool

PS I, PS II

Photosystem I, Photosystem II

PSET

Photosynthetic electron transport

q(E)

Quenching due to membrane energization processes

q(N)/de-q(N)

Nonphotochemical quenching/de-quenching processes

q(P)/de-q(P)

Photochemical quenching/de-quenching processes

q(T1 → 2)/q(T2 → 1)

Fluorescence lowering/increase due to state 1 → 2 and state 2 → 1 transitions

q(I)

Fluorescence lowering due to photoinhibitory processes

q(ΔpH)

Fluorescence quenching due to transmembrane ΔpH

RC I, RC II

Reaction centers of PS I, PS II

RSET

Respiratory electron transport

Zx

Zeaxanthin

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • George C. Papageorgiou
    • 1
  • Merope Tsimilli-Michael
    • 2
  • Kostas Stamatakis
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center for Scientific Research DemokritosInstitute of BiologyAthensGreece
  2. 2.NicosiaCyprus

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