Precision Agriculture

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 348–361 | Cite as

Farm adoption of embodied knowledge and information intensive precision agriculture technology bundles

  • N. J. MillerEmail author
  • T. W. Griffin
  • I. A. Ciampitti
  • A. Sharda


On-farm adoption of individual and groups of precision agriculture technologies has grown in the past 15 years. Based on a sample of 545 farm observations collected by the Kansas Farm Management Association, farm adoption of bundles of embodied knowledge and information intensive technologies was analyzed using a Markov transition approach. Three separate analyses estimated transition probabilities to show the adoption of bundles of embodied knowledge technologies, the adoption of bundles of information intensive technologies, and the adoption of variable rate technologies contingent on prior adoption of embodied knowledge and/or information intensive technologies. Each analysis was estimated for two separate time periods (2009–2012) and (2013–2016). The probability that farms retain the same bundle or transition to a different bundle by the next time period are reported. The results indicate that persistence with the same technology bundle is the predominant behavior and that this behavior has strengthened in the study’s most recent time period.


Automated guidance Automated section control Lightbar Variable rate Markov Transition probability 



The authors appreciate the technical assistance provided by Robert Roper. The authors are grateful to those affiliated with the Kansas Farm Management Association (KFMA) - especially Kevin Herbel, KFMA economists, and KFMA farmers for continued data collection and their support of this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

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