Precision Agriculture

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 216–238 | Cite as

A survey of wireless sensor network approaches and their energy consumption for monitoring farm fields in precision agriculture

  • Mohammad Hossein Anisi
  • Gaddafi Abdul-Salaam
  • Abdul Hanan Abdullah


Precision agriculture (PA) is the use of information and communication technology together with best agricultural practices for farm management. PA requires the acquisition, transmission and processing of large amounts of data from farm fields. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a system for monitoring agriculture fields. Several researchers have used WSNs to collect the required data from the regions of interest for their intended usages in various applications. In a WSN, the energy consumption of the sensor nodes is the main issue, due to its direct impact on the lifetime of the network. Many approaches have been proposed to address this issue using different power sources and types of nodes. Specifically, in PA, because of the extended time period that is required to monitor fields, using an appropriate WSN approach is important. There is a need for a comprehensive review of WSN approaches for PA. The aim of this paper is to classify and describe the state-of-the-art of WSNs and analyze their energy consumption based on their power sources. WSN approaches in PA are categorized and discussed according to their features.


Wireless sensor networks Energy consumption Topologies Power source 



Above ground


Base station


Center pivot








General packet radio service


Global positioning system


Irrigation management system


Intelligent precision agriculture gateway


Irrigation station


Integrated wireless sensor networks solution for PA


Knowledge information processor for agriculture sensor data and fire-sensor data


Low noise amplifier


Low frequency array


Line of sight


Line quality indicator


Medium access control


Precision agriculture


Personal computer


Hypertext preprocessor


Radio frequency


Radio-frequency identification


Remote monitoring station


Received signal strength indicator


Real-time alert system


Real-time kinematic differential global positioning system


Single ended elliptical antenna


Subscriber identity model


Time-out medium access control


Time division multiple access


Tiny operation system




Variable rate irrigation


Wireless co-ordinator


Wireless end device


Wireless sensor networks


Wireless router


Wireless underground sensor networks


Extensible mark-up language


ZigBee co-ordinator


ZigBee end device


ZigBee enabled SIM


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Hossein Anisi
    • 1
  • Gaddafi Abdul-Salaam
    • 2
  • Abdul Hanan Abdullah
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer System and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information TechnologyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of ComputingUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

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