Precision Agriculture

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 499–522 | Cite as

Using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques to monitor nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and potassium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  • G. R. Mahajan
  • R. N. Sahoo
  • R. N. Pandey
  • V. K. Gupta
  • Dinesh Kumar


In situ, non-destructive and real time mineral nutrient stress monitoring is an important aspect of precision farming for rational use of fertilizers. Studies have demonstrated the ability of remote sensing to monitor nitrogen (N) in many crops, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in very few crops and none so far to monitor sulphur (S). Specially designed (1) fertility gradient experiment and (2) test crop experiments were used to check the possibility of mineral N–P–S–K stress detection using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing. Leaf and canopy hyperspectral reflectance data and nutrient status at booting stage of the wheat crop were recorded. N–P–S–K sensitive wavelengths were identified using linear correlation analysis. Eight traditional vegetation indices (VIs) and three proposed (one for P and two for S) were evaluated for plant N–P–S–K predictability. A proposed VI (P_1080_1460) predicted P content with high and significant accuracy (correlation coefficient (r) 0.42 and root means square error (RMSE) 0.180 g m−2). Performance of the proposed S VI (S_660_1080) for S concentration and content retrieval was similar whereas prediction accuracies were higher than traditional VIs. Prediction accuracy of linear regressive models improved when biomass-based nutrient contents were considered rather than concentrations. Reflectance in the SWIR region was found to monitor N–P–S–K status in plants in combination with reflectance at either visible (VIS) or near infrared (NIR) region. Newly developed and validated spectral algorithms specific to N, P, S and K can further be used for monitoring in a wheat crop in order to undertake site-specific management.


Hyperspectral remote sensing Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulphur Triticum aestivum L. 



The award of Senior Research Fellowship by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, to G. R. Mahajan (first author) is gratefully acknowledged. Authors are especially thankful to Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 for providing a spectro-radiometer for carrying out the present research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Mahajan
    • 1
  • R. N. Sahoo
    • 2
  • R. N. Pandey
    • 3
  • V. K. Gupta
    • 2
  • Dinesh Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Resource Management and Integrated ProductionICAR Research Complex for GoaOld GoaIndia
  2. 2.Division of Agricultural PhysicsIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Division of AgronomyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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