Precision Agriculture

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 379–396 | Cite as

A technical opportunity index based on the fuzzy footprint of a machine for site-specific management: an application to viticulture

  • J. N. Paoli
  • B. Tisseyre
  • O. Strauss
  • A. B. McBratney


This paper describes a method that allows farmers to (i) decide whether or not the spatial variation of a field allows a reliable variable-rate application, (ii) discover if a particular threshold (field segmentation) based on within-field data is technically feasible according to the application machinery and (iii) make an appropriate application map. Our method aims to improve on a previous technical opportunity index (Oi) with a fuzzy technical opportunity index (FTOi). The FTOi considers (i) a fuzzy footprint model of a variable-rate application controller (VRAC), which describes the area within which the VRAC can operate reliably, (ii) the location inaccuracy of the data and (iii) the ability (accuracy) of the VRAC to perform distinct levels of treatments. The originality of our approach is based on the use of a fuzzy estimation process to decide if a level of treatment is reliable or not for each area over which the VRAC operates. A unique feature of the approach is that it does not require data on a regular grid. Only characteristics of the machinery and the treatment to be applied are necessary; interpolation of the data and geostatistics are not required by the end user. Tests on theoretical fields, obtained from a simulated annealing procedure, showed that the FTOi was able to assess the technical manageability of variation in the field. Tests also showed that our approach could take into account problems related to low resolution data. Finally, the approach has been applied to a real situation in a vineyard block. This has highlighted the practical implementation and the ability to generate useful information for managing the within-field variation (optimal thresholding, and application and error maps).


Site-specific management (SSM) Opportunity index (Oi) Viticulture Fuzzy logic Possibility theory 



Alex McBratney acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council and the (Australian) Grains Research & Development Corporation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. N. Paoli
    • 1
  • B. Tisseyre
    • 2
  • O. Strauss
    • 3
  • A. B. McBratney
    • 4
  1. 1.UP GAPAgroSup DijonDijon CedexFrance
  2. 2.UMR ITAPMontpellier SupAgro/CemagrefMontpellier CedexFrance
  3. 3.Department of RoboticsLIRMMMontpellier Cedex 5France
  4. 4.Australian Centre for Precision AgricultureThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

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